Writing(5 paragraph s;subm it online): What is there lation between faith and reason(

| March 30, 2017

21August

IntroductionandBackground

.gif”>23August

Anselm,Proslogion 1-4

Writing(5paragraphs;submitonline): Whatistherelation betweenfaithandreason(or understanding)inAnselm’sProslogion.

28August

ReneDescartes,Meditations

Writing(5paragraphs,dueinclass):Whatroleorfunction doestheprooffortheexistenceof GodplayinDescartes argument;or,toputitslightlydifferently,whydoesDescartes needthe prooffortheexistenceofGod?

30August

BaruchSpinoza,EthicsI(Defintions, Axioms,andPropositions1-15)

Writing(5paragraphs,submitonline):WhatdoesSpinoza meanbytheword”God”?

4 September

BaruchSpinoz:a,Theologial-PoliticalTreatise,selections

Writing(5paragraphs,dueinclass): Whatoughttobetherelationbetween theStateandthe

Church,accordingtoSpinoza?

6September

TheConstitutionoftheUnitedStatesandtheFirstAmendment oftheConstitution

Writing(5paragraphs,submitonline):Compare andcontrasttherelationbetween Churchand

StateasenvisionedbySpinozaandasdescribed in theUSConstitution.

11 SeptemberImmanuelKant,TBA Writing:TBA

13September

TBA

18September

LudwigFeuerbach,TheEssence ofChristianity,chapts1-2

Writing(5paragraphs,dueinclass): WhatdoesFeuerbach meanby”God”?

20September

KarlMarx,”ThesesonFeuerbach” and”TheCommunistManifesto”

Writing(5paragraphs,submit online):WhydoesMarxbelieve heisanimprovementonthe thought ofFeuerbach

25Septemher

MaxHorkheimer,”On theRiseandDeclineoftheIndividual”

Writing(5paragraphs,dueinclass): AccordingtoHorkheimer,whatroledidreligion playin society? What hasdisplaced itinmodernlife? Whateffecthasthishad?

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.gif”>PROSLOGION

PREFACE

After hadpublished,atthepressing entreatiesofseveral of brethren, acertainshort tract· [theMonologion] as an………..UlJJ.v•meditation onthemeaning offaithfromthepointofview seeking,through silent reasoningwithinhimself, thingshe

not-reflectingthatthiswasmadeupofaconnectedchainof arguments,Ibegantowonderifperhapsitmightbepossible onesingleargumentthatforitsproofrequirednoothersave and thatbyitselfwouldsuffice toprovethatGodreally1;;./U H.:s.:•He isthesupremegoodneedingnootherandisHewhomallhaveneedoffortheirbeingandwell-being,andalsotoprove

everwebelieveabouttheDivineBeing.ButasoftenandasuJ..lJt o:.t;Jll£

as Iturned mythoughts tothis,sometimesitseemedtome hadalmostreached whatIwasseeking, sometimesiteluded acutest thinking completely,sothat finally,in desperation,l.·abouttogiveupwhatIwaslooking forassomethingu. uv’u.,•J.uJ.ycfind.However,whenIhad decidedtoputaside thisidea

lestbyuselesslyoccupyingmyminditmightprevent otherideas whichIcouldmake someprogress,then,inspiteofmy

nessandmyresistancetoit,itbegantoforceitself uponme and more pressingly.So it was that one day when Iwaswornoutwithresisting itsimportunacy,therecametome,in veryconflict ofmythoughtS,what haddespairedoffinding,so

Ieagerlygrasped thenotion which inmydistractionIhad

rejecting.

Judging,then,thatwhathadgivenmesuchjoytodiscover

*Severalminorlibertieshavebeentakeninthetranslation.Theformula which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought’anditsvariantshavebeenhyphenated sakeofconvenience;theFoolofthePsalmisthas.been givenacapitalletter;italicS

beenaddedinafewpassagestomakethemeaning clearer;andsomesupplen11erii wordsandphrases(enclosed insquarebrackets) have alsobeeninterpolatedforthe purpose.Biblicalquotationshavebeentranslated directlyfromStAnselm’stext· differs slightlyfromthatoftheLatinVulgate version.ReferencestothePsalms

the VulgatenumberingwhichdiffersfromthatoftheHebrew textsfollowedby other versions.

Proslogion

if itwerewritten downtoanyonewhomightread writtenthefollowingshorttractdealingwiththis·question severalothe’from.thepointofvwofoetryingto raise

tocontemplateGodandseeking to.understand whathe

Inmyopinion,neitherthistractnortheotherI mentionedto becalledabookortocarryitsauthor’sname,and

. notthinktheyshouldbesentforthwithout sometitle(by

tospeak,theymight vitethoseinto·whosehandsthey toreadthem);so havgivento.eachittitle,thefirst

An_Exampleof Meditationon theMeaning of Faith,a11d

inQuestof Understanding.

. asbothof.them,under these titles,hadalready been severalreaders,anumQ.erof people(abovealltherev-

. ofLyons,Hugh,apostolic delegatetoGaul,who

. mebyhisapostolic authority)haveurgedmetoputmy

.them.Forthesakeofgreater convenienceIhavenamedtheMonologion,thatis, asoliloquy;andtheotherProslogion,allocution.

:v·uJL);ofthemind o.thecontemplation·ofGod

llaL·-Lru•utrulyexists

Godcannotbethoughtnottoexist

.’theFoolsaidinhishear:t’whatcannot bethought

God iswhateveritisbettertobethannottobe’a.ndthatthroughHimselfalneHemakesallotherbeings from

,isperceptivealthough Heisnotabody

I . . ‘ •

He isomnipotentalthough Hecannotdo anythings is.bothmerciful andimpassible

· all-justandsupremelyjustOnesparesthewicked and ha.Sinercyo:rithewicked

justly punishesan9.justly sparesthewiked

· . ‘allthewaysoftheLordaremercyandtruth’,andyethow isjust inallHisways’

Proslogion Proslogion 8s

.gif”>.gif”>I2.That·GodistheverylifebywhichHelives andthatthe holdsforlikeattributes

I3.HowHealoneislimidess andeternal,although otherspirits’ alsolimidessandeternal ;.

I4.HowandwhyGodisbothseenandnotseenbythose

IIrr.n . .

.IS.HowHeisgreaterthancanbe,thought

I6.That thisisthe’inaGcessiblelight’inwhichHe’dwells’ I7.Thatharmony,fragrance,sweetness,softness,andbeauty

God accordingtoHisownineffable maimer .

I8. That therearenopartsinGodorinHiseternitywhichHe

Ig. That Heisnotinplace.ortimebutallthingsareinIIrr.n

20.That Heisbeforeandbeyondevenalleternal things

2I. Whetherthisisthe’ageoftheage’orthe’agesofthe

22.ThatHealoneiswhatHeisandwhoHeis

23.That this goodisequallyFatherandSonandHolySpirit, thatthisistheonenecessary beingwhichisaltogether whollyandsolelygood

24.Aspeculationastowhatkindandhowgreatthisgoodis

25. Whichgoodsbelongtothosewhoenjoythisgoodandhow theyare.

26.Whetherthisisthe’fullnessofjoy’whichtheLordprcmus

I.Arousingof themindtothecontemplationof God

Comehow,insignificantman,flyfor amomentfromyour escape foralitdewhilefromthe ultofyourthoughts. ut now·yourweighty caresandleaveyourwearisometoils. yourselfforalitdetoGodandrestforalitde inItrr.n.Enterinto,

innerchamberofyoursoul,shutout verythingsaveGodand ·

can beofhelpinyourquestforIIrr.nandhavinglocked thedooJ.:IIrr.nout [Matt. 6:6].Speaknow,mywholeheart, speak God:’I seekYourcountenance,0Lord,YourcountenanceI[Ps.26:8].

Comethen, LordmyGod,teachmyheartwhereandhowto

and howtofindYou.Lord,ifYouarenotpresenthere,

.Youareabsent,shallllookforYou?Ontheotherhand, why then,sinceYouarepresent, doInot

surelyYoudwellin’lightinaccessible'[ITim.6:I6}

_i$.thisinaccessiblelight,or howcanIapproach the

Or· whoshallleadmeandtakemeintoitthatI

in it?Again,bywhatsigns,underwhataspect,shall”I NeverhaveIseenYou,Lord myGoci,Idonotknow

he do,mosthighLord,whatshallthisexiledo,

as he is?WhatshallYour servantdo,tormented

·Youandyetcastoff’far from Yourface'[Ps.3I:22]?

see YouandYourcountenanceistoofaraway frorri

,….,.,””‘,,r…., tocomeclpsetoYou,andYourdwellingplaceis

he longstofindYouanddoes not knowwhereYouare;

seekYououtandhedoes notknowYourcountenance.

!IWJ;tc.aJ:emy GodandmyLord,andneverhaveIseen-You.You meandre-createdmeandYouhavegivenmeall-the possess,andstillIdo notknowYou.Infine, wasmade

. seeYou,andIhavenotyetaccomplishedwhatIwasmade

etcl1edman’slotiswhenhehaslostthatforwhichhewas howhardandcruelwasthatFall!Alas, whathasmanlost

!lii-L·u=hefound?Whatdidheloseandwhatremainstohim?

. bkssedness forwhichhewasmade,andhefoundthe which hewas notmade.That withoutwhichnothingis

·gonefromhimandthatwhichbyitself isnothing but

rnau1stohim.Once’manatethebreadofangels'[Ps.77:

. nowhehungers;nowheeats’the breadofsorrow’

.. ;Z ,whichthenheknewnothingo£Alasthecommongrief alastheuniversallamentationofthechildren ofAdam! withfullness; wesighwithhunger.Hewasprosperous;

ie:g.ging.Heinhishappiness hadpossessionsandinhismisery

•n…P.gif”>

homelandintoexile;fromthevisionofGodintoourpresent

ness;fromthe joyofimmortalityintothebitternessandhn,ern·”””

;;- death.Ohwretched changefromsogreatagoodtosogreatan

Whatagrievous loss,agrievous sorrow,utterlygrievous!

Alas,unfortunatethatIam,oneofthemiserablechildren of separatedfromGod.WhathaveIundertaken?WhathaveI done?Where·wasIgoing?WherehaveIcometo?Towhat aspiring?ForwpatdoIyearn?’Isoughtgoodness'[Ps.r2r:9] lo,’thereisconfusion'[Jer.14:19].Iyearned forGod,andI myownway.I soughtpeacewithinmyselfand’Ihavefound

lationandsadness’inmyheartofhearts [Ps.rr4:3].I vv·….,’-‘-“‘”‘

laughfromoutthehappinessofmysoul, and’thesobbing of· heart'[Ps.37:9]makesmecryout.Ihopedforgladnessand,lo,’ sighscomethickandfast.

And You,’0Lord,howlong'[Ps.6:4]?Howlong,Lord,will-

be unmindful of us? ‘How long willYouturn Your cmmt,enal fromus[Ps.r2:r]?WhenwillYoulookuponusandhearus

4]? WhenwillYouenlightenoureyesandshow’Your’–V’LLl-‘-‘””u.

tous[Ps.79:4]?WhenwillYougiveYom:selfagaintous?

us,Lord;-hearus,enlighten us,showYourselftous.Give

to usthatitmaybewellwithus,forwithoutYouit goes soill-Havepityuponourefforts andourstrivingstowardsYou,for availnothingwithout You.Youcalltous,’sohelpus'[Ps. beseechYou,Lord,letmenotgosighinghopelessly,but breathehopefully again.Myheartismadebitterbyits…….•v-‘-“‘uv.beseechYou,Lord,sweetenitbyYourconsolation.Isetout

tolookforYou;IbeseechYou,Lord,donotletmedepart fasting.IcametoYouasonefamished;donotletmego ·- Poor,Ihavecometoonewhoisrich.Unfortunate, Ihave one.Who ismerciful.Do not lefmereturn scorned and handed. AndifnowIsighbeforeIeat[Job3:4],givemeto mysighs.Lord,boweddownasIam,Icanonly.look

raisemeupthatImaylookupwards. ‘Mysinsareheapedmyhead’;theycovermeoverand’likeaheavyload’crushme[Ps.37:s].Saveme,disburdenme,’lesttheirpitcloseitsUJ.V’U.U:.L'”‘me'[Ps.68:r6]:Let mediscernYourlightwhether itbe

orfromthedepths.Teachmetoseek andrevealYourself·

asI becauseI

norfindYouunlessYoureveal Yoursel£Letmeseek.Youin

·-letmedesireYouin seekingYou;letmefindYouin loving meloveYouinfindingYou.

gw”1edlge,Lord,andIgivethanksthJ”s:t:: asmuchasYouseefit,th.atfouexistaswebelieve “‘ …,andthatYou-arewhatwebelieveYoutobe.Nowwe

– – Youaresomethingthanwhichnothing greatercanbe

.:Drcanitbethatathingofsuchanaturedoesnotexist, Foolhassaidinhisheart,thereisnoGod'[Ps.13:r;52:

u–ety,- -whenthissameFoolhearswhatIamspeaking about,

‘something-than-which-nothing-greater,-can-be-thought’,

Jml(lSwhath_e hears,and·whatheunderstands isinhis f§..

ifhe does notunderstandthatitactuallyexists. Foritis g

– 0

–_ – · toexist· · and · to
.. . – – . whenapainterplans t !

he1sgomgtoexecute,hehas[thepicture]ip.his 1= cD

_hedoesnotyetthinkthatitactuallyexistsbecausehehas ‘ ·’
}G-)

r!:

i6.,.

88 Proslogion

:S :s ….

0 g-=

t

Proslogion 89

J

lll’;emewen theveryobject whichthethingisisunderstood.l:f’
……·-·u·–.then,Godcan_be thoughtnottoexist,butnot.at.J:J,.. <l)

meoo11tasenseNoone,mdeed,understanding whatGodis 3E

-<t""l

be-thought exists bothinthemindandinreality.

. · . he . · . . . .-u

8:f0 . . . –

to-3· That Godcannot bet/1-oughtnottoexist .

And certainly this being so truly exists that it cannot be ·

thought not to exist. For something can be thought tothat cannot bethought not toexist, and this isgreater thanwhich can be thought not to exist.Hence, if rmtr-r·na•n–,;IVm·t'!l

!) ga-greater-cannot-be-thought can be thought not to exist,

t

ibthat-than-which-a-greater-cannot-be-thought is not the. same·
that-than-which-a-greater-cannot-be-thought, which is

– .Something-than-which-a-greater-cannot-be-thoughtexistsso

. . . .· 1

f.!SS :..··ForGod isthat-than-which-nothing– f

l:Jl:-:De-·th possessexistencetothehighest degree;foranything else

existastruly,andso possessesexistencetoalesser degree.Why·

did ‘theFoolsayinhis heart, thereisnoGod'[Ps.·I3:I;52:I· itissoevidenttoanyrationalmindthatYouof allthingsexist highestdegree? Whyindeed,unless becausehewasstupidanda

Yourselfalone,.whomadeeverythingelsefromnothing?For

. is notthisis.lessthanthatwhichcap.bethought of;hut bethoughtaboutYou.Whatgoodness,then, could be thesupreme good, through whi.ch everygoodexists?

…are just,truthful, happy,andwhateveritisbetter tobe

· tobe-foriisbetter tobejustrather than unjust,and r.tratherthanunhappy.

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4·How’theFoolsaidinhisheart.,··whatcannotbethought

How indeedhashe’saidinhisheart’ whathecould nothowcouldhenotthinkwhathe’saidinhisheart’,sinceto· one’sheart’andto’think’arethesame?Butif he really(indeed,hereally)boththoughtbecause he ‘saidinhisheart’anddid

in hisheart’because hecouldnotthink,thereisnotonly

inwhichsomething is’saidinone’sheart’ orthought.For

.senseathingisthought whenthewordsignifyingitisullluJ;:;.u”‘

.··Heisperceptivealthough Heisnotabody

itis bettertobeperceptive,omnipotent,merciful,impas­ not tobeso,howareYouabletoperceive ifYouarenot h,oware.YouomnipotentifYouarenotabletodoevery­

.uu•·vvareYou.mercifulandimpassibleatthesametime?For

;£_Qrporealthingsarecapableofperception,sincethesenses

. withthebody andinthebody,howareYoupe:r;ceptive,

4fe notabodybutthesupremespirit whoisbetterthan

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