What is the relationship between policies and norms

| March 9, 2019

What is the relationship between policies and norms?Select one:a. Norms are informal, unwritten rules; policies are formal, writtenrules.b. Norms are formal, written rules; policies are informal, unwrittenrules.c. Both norms and policies are informal, unwritten rules, butpolicies have social consequences.d. Both norms and policies are formal, written rules, but normsare enforced by peers and policies by authorities.Gendered institutions are interesting from a sociological point ofview because:Select one:a. they help challenge the gender binary system.b. they affirm and enforce gender difference and inequality.c. they systematically work toward the goal of a free citizenry.d. they fail to provide a framework which makes it possible forwomen to make rational decisions about their careers.The phrase gender salience refers to:Select one:a. the fact that gender consistently infiltrates each part of aninstitution.b. the process of neutralizing gender in institutions.c. the process of scientifically mapping gender in the socialstructure.d. the relevance of gender across activities and spaces within aninstitution.What is common to elementary schools, bathrooms, andbodybuilding?Select one:a. They are governed more with gender policies than gendernorms.b. They help to dismantle the matrix of domination. c. They reinforce gender difference.d. They encourage the idea that women are equal to men.The authors argue that sex-segregated bathrooms serve social,not biological, functions. What does this mean?Select one:a. Males and females bodies are different. Because of thesedifferences, we need separate bathrooms.b. There is nothing about male and female bodies that requires usto have separate bathrooms. We have different bathroomsbecause that’s what seems normal to us.c. Women are most social than men. Women’s bathrooms werecreated so they could interact with each other in a safe space.d. Biological differences are more important than socialdifferences when it comes to bathrooms.While doing research on playgrounds in elementary schools,sociologist Barrie Thorne noticed that:Select one:a. teachers encouraged girls to play indoors and boys to play onplaygrounds.b. children were seated by gender in classrooms.c. boys’ social interactions were not influenced by gender, butgirls’ were.d.gender was less salient in the classroom than on the playground.Education is a gendered institution because:Select one:a. it involves organizations and social norms that persist overtime.b. it guides boys and girls into different social spaces.c. it helps in maintaining a healthy sex ratio in society.d. it is vital in nurturing men and women as responsible citizens.According to Messner, what types of norms and values do boysoften learn from participating in sports?Select one: a. They learn how to work as a team and value hard work.b. They learn that being better than other boys is very important.c. They learn how to lose to other boys, which will help themnavigate the hierarchy of men.d. They learn that girls and boys are equal.What would happen if sports were not organized by gender, butby ability instead?Select one:a. We would see that women and men have equal ability andwomen would win as often as men.b. We would see that women and men have such unequal abilitiesthat they would still never compete against each other.c. Beliefs in gender difference and inequality would not beroutinely and ritualistically rehearsed through sport.d. Competitions would no longer be fair.A study of pay in professional golfing concluded that the primaryrationale for vast differences in prize money was:Select one:a. institutional regulations.b. gender.c. differences in skill.d. the number of viewers.The authors argue, “organizing sports around gender protects theidea that women are inferior athletes.” What do they mean?Select one:a. The authors believe that women and men’s sports shouldremain separate.b. Sex-segregated sports protect women from being hurt by men.c. Keeping sports segregated by sex does not allow us to see ifmen and women can compete together.d. Feminists prefer sex-segregated sports so that women canhave equal opportunities.How do the authors believe we should organize sports? Select one:a. They believe sports should be organized by ability instead ofgender.b. They believe that women should be able to play on men’steams if they are good enough, but men should not be able toplay on women’s teams.c. They believe that sports should be organized by gender.d. They believe that some sports (like golf) should be genderneutral, but other sports (like football) should remain sexsegregated.What does it mean that we do sexuality?Select one:a. It means learning how to be sexual with your partner.b. It means that our sexual interactions are free and spontaneous.c. It means that we often follow rules that prescribe the who,what, and how of sexual intimacy.d. It means sexual liberation and the opportunity to engage insexual activity if one wants.What is the erotic marketplace?Select one:a. The abstract space in which goods and services are attributedeconomic value.b. The places in which people sell and buy erotic services andgoods.c. The abstract space in which sexual goods are commodified.d. The abstract space in which people are ranked according totheir perceived sexual desirability.According to OKCupid data, why is men’s desirability lessdependent on his looks?Select one:a. Because women only respond to men with high incomes and donot consider men’s looks. b. Because the most attractive women are less likely to receivemessages than the most attractive men.c. Because men can offset being not-so-attractive by being funny,smart, or rich.d. Because on average, men tend to seek women who are morethan them.Why would heterosexual women with high levels of success beranked lower in the erotic marketplace?Select one:a. Women escalate more slowly than men in a wide range ofvalued accomplishments.b. Women escalate faster than men in a wide range of valuedaccomplishments.c. Gendered matching rules suggest that women should be moreattractive than men.d. Gendered matching rules suggest that men should be moreaccomplished than women.How do gender and age intersect in the erotic marketplace?Select one:a. As women get older, they prefer younger men, just like menprefer younger women.b. The average man prefers to date a woman who is younger; theaverage woman reports the opposite preference.c. The average man prefers to date women who are younger, butas they get older the age gap he prefers shrinks.d. Age is conflated with ugliness; this is equally true for men andwomen, so as they age their erotic value approaches zero.Which of the following is NOT true?Select one:a. Asian women and men are more likely to marry outside theirracial group than inside it.b. White women are more likely to marry black men than Asianmen. c. Whites are more likely to marry Latinos than they are to marryblacks.d. White men are more likely to marry Asian women than blackwomen.What does it mean to say that we privilege the heterosexual malegaze?Select one:a. Media images are designed to appeal to sexy women.b. Media images are designed to appeal to heterosexual womenwho are attracted by the gaze.c. Media images are designed to appeal to heterosexual men andlesbian women.d. Media images are designed to appeal to heterosexual men.What is sexual objectification?Select one:a. It is the process by which people, especially women, arepresented as objects of desire for others.b. It is the process by which women internalize a heterosexualorientation.c. It is the process by which people find someone attractive andsexually desirable.d. It is the process by which men define a particular object assexually desirable.Self-objectification is:Select one:a. accepting a heterosexual orientation simply by virtue ofheteronormativity.b. the internalization of the idea that others can be moreattractive than they are themselves.c. a rejection of sexual subjectification and learning to love one’sown body.d. learning to think of oneself as an object for the pleasure ofothers. Many heterosexual men are uncomfortable in gay male spacesbecause:Select one:a. they have not internalized correctly the heterosexual femalegaze.b. they have not internalized correctly the homosexual male gaze.c. they are used to objectifying others, rather than beingobjectified by others.d. they are used to being objectified only by women.What is the sexual script?Select one:a. specific rules that guide homosexual sexual performancesb. images designed to appeal to a hypothetical heterosexual manc. rules that objectify others as sexually attractived. institutionalized rules for sexual interactionsWhat is one way that anti-rape campaigns on college campusesmight actually perpetuate rape culture?Select one:a. Rape culture is so institutionalized that it is impossible toescape it.b. These campaigns forget to draw attention to non-studentsexual predators.c. College women can shame perpetrators who are fellowstudents more easily than administrators can.d. Campaigns tend to focus on what women did not do to reducetheir risk, rather than what the perpetrators did.Which of the following statistics related to rates of orgasm is true?Select one:a. Women have about three times as many orgasms as men butare reluctant to admit it.b. Women in same-sex relationships have two to three times asmany orgasms as women in heterosexual ones.c. Compared to men, when women masturbate they reach orgasmmuch more slowly.d. Women have more orgasms than men do in penile-vaginal intercourse.Bystander intervention programs on college campuses areeffective in reducing rates of sexual violence, because:Select one:a. they teach both men and women how to intervene in specificsituations.b. they empower the entire college community to just say no torape culture.c. they teach that standing by is safer than intervening.d. they teach women to always have a buddy with her for safetyin numbers.Which of the following is true of the "orgasm gap"?Select one:a. It is much more difficult for women for achieve orgasm thanmen, so women have less orgasms than men.b. Women in same-sex relationships have fewer orgasms thanwomen in heterosexual relationships.c. The orgasm gap is a result of the heterosexual sexual scriptthat privileges male orgasm.d. The orgasm gap is a result of the push-and-resist dynamic.In contemporary college hookup culture, which of the following istrue?Select one:a. Men neglect women’s orgasms in general.b. Men neglect women’s orgasms in hookups.c. Men prioritize women’s orgasms in hookups.d. Women prioritize their own orgasms.What does it mean to say that hook-up culture “often feels likemore than just an opportunity, but an imperative”?Select one:a. Hook-up culture is becoming less and less prevalent on collegecampuses as young people are opting for relationships instead ofhook-ups.b. Many young people feel pressured to engage is hook-up cultureand fear judgement by their peers if they do not. c. Hook-up culture is a myth. Young people today are having sexat the same rates as the previous generation.d. Hook-up culture inevitably leads to higher rates of sexualassault.

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