Unit3Disc1Peer Response NP
Read the posts of the other learners and respond to two. In each response, suggest additional ways the theories might apply to the learner’s identified organization. Each post should be approximately 150 words each and add to the discussion.
(PEER1) Antonnia Buie
Social learning theory
The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. This theory can have three uses: retention, reproduction and motivation.
Retention — remembering what you paid attention to. Includes symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal
Reproduction — reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and self-observation of reproduction.
Motivation — having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as past (i.e. traditional behaviorism), promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model)
Expectations: Youth believe that using the refusal method will work without upsetting their partners. Youth believe that using condoms will protect them from pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted infections.
Reinforcement: Youth receive praise for proper practice of the refusal model. Youth have positive associations with abstaining from sex such as, “abstaining keeps me healthy,” and “abstaining allows me to focus on school” that will self-reward their abstinence in the future. Youth receive praise for proper condom demonstration. Youth have positive associations connected with condom use such as, “It will keep me healthy,” and “I can relax and enjoy myself more” that will self-reward their condom use in the future.
Transformational leadership is a leadership style that can inspire positive changes in those who follow. Transformational leaders are generally energetic, enthusiastic, and passionate. Not only are these leaders concerned and involved in the process; they are also focused on helping every member of the group succeed as well. According to the results of one study, this style of leadership can also have a positive influence on employee well-being. The researchers discovered that employees who identified a higher level of transformational leadership in their employers also had higher reported levels of well-being. The effect stayed significant even after researchers controlled for factors that are linked to well-being such as job strain, education, and age.
“The results of this study suggest that a transformational leadership style, which both conveys a sense of trust and meaningfulness and individually challenges and develops employees, also has a positive effect on employee well-being,” the authors summarized.
The study’s authors suggest that the results are important and can help companies develop leadership training programs that can be used to teach transformational leadership skills. Acquiring communication skills such as resolving conflicts in the workplace and recognizing the needs of employees are an important part of transformational leadership.
Unit 3 Discussion 1
According to Gibson (2004), social learning theory, also known as social cognitive theory, “identifies learning as a dynamic interplay between the person, the environment, and behavior”. Social learning focuses on observation and what is retained through observations. The social learning theory consists of four processes. These four processes are attention, retention, behavior production, and motivation. The individual retains in his memory what he is attentive to. This produces behavior that is modeled after the subject that was observed. Motivation occurs when positive outcomes are to be expected when actions are performed.
Transformational leadership theory is the idea that influence from those in leadership roles can help train others to become effective leaders. The four components of transformational leadership include idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration (Arnold & Loughlin, 2013). These components are similar to the components of social learning theory. However, the component of individual consideration focuses on motivating the individuals within the group, rather than the group as a whole.
Institutional perspective is the idea that the more the organization reflects the community’s values and concerns, the more likely the organization will be financially and politically supported (Watson, 2014). This supports the social learning theory, because in order to be aware of what the community values and what the community’s concerns are, the organization must be attentive to what is happening within the community, retain and analyze the information gained, and produce services that will be of use to the community. The motivation to do this will not only come from the financial and political support that the organization will receive, but the positive outcomes that will result from the help being provided.
Communities in Schools is an organization that helps to keep kids in school and on the path to success through mentorship, community resources, collaborating with teachers and staff, and events. The social learning theory is reflected in this organization, because in order to be effective, the organization must capture the attention of the children who are at risk for dropping out of school, and act accordingly to produce behaviors toward success.
Arnold, K. A., & Loughlin, C. (2013). Integrating transformational and participative versus
directive leadership theories. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 34(1), 67–84
Gibson, S. K. (2004). Social learning (cognitive) theory and implications for human resource
development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6(2), 193–210.
Watson, L. D., & Hoefer, R. A. (2014). Developing nonprofit and human service leaders:
Essential knowledge and skills. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Read the initial posts of the other learners and respond to two. Compare the perspectives you had about the impact of key leadership factors with those identified by your fellow learners.
PEER1 Antonnia Buie
The first challenge I noticed would be disclosure and sharing information. Communication would be a huge part in this particular project. Previous research on nonprofit collaborative partnerships has examined why these partnerships form, how they operate, the various challenges that they encounter, and the benefits and other outcomes of these endeavors. financial pressure resulting from a decline of government funding and private/corporate donations, has led nonprofits to spend more time and energy on securing various revenue sources and other resources, and become more willing to work with and learn from each other. Nonprofit collaborative service delivery arrangements or endeavors can take a variety of forms, from large networks of dozens of nonprofit human service organizations working together to produce a system of services, to small networks of nonprofit service providers targeting a particular community for services, to two nonprofits working together in a single inter-organizational collaboration.
Since there are several moving parts to this concert, it will take a considerable amount of persuasion to get people motivated to assist. It also takes a great deal of trust. Groot (2016) defines trust as the number one ingredient listed by workers—the most important aspect of a quality supervision experience—and is identified as the most important leadership variable that contributes to their best leadership experience ever. Robinson (1996) observed trust as “expectations, assumptions or beliefs about the likelihood that another’s future actions will be beneficial, favorable, or at least not detrimental to one’s interests”. Groot (2016) goes on to describe respect, like trust, as being positively associated with workers’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment He also points out that trust and respect are highly correlated and interrelated in a leadership situation and that the ability of the leader to convey caring, attentiveness, and support increases the likelihood of respect. Respect is a central element of the leader–worker relationship and directly tied to overall leader effectiveness.
The best course of action is to establish an action plan within the organization prior to brining in external resources. Internal policies say a lot about a company’s ability to produce results. It also speaks to how well the company can work together and if they are progressive in nature.
Unit 3, Discussion 2
Trust is identified as the most important leadership variable that contributes to someone’s best leadership experience ever. Trust is defined as “expectations, assumptions or beliefs about the likelihood that another’s future actions will be beneficial, favorable, or at least not detrimental to one’s interests” (Groot, 2016, p. 33). Trust belongs among the most important factors influencing interactions in organizations as well as organizational success. Trust and integrity are connected. Perceptions of honesty and reliability as well as perceptions of fairness and consistency are key factors that contribute to trust in a leader–member relationship (p. 33). Behavioral integrity by a leader forms a strong source for leader–member trust. Leader integrity builds when leaders do what they say they will do and follow through. Organizations with workers who trust those in charge are more successful in the long run than organizations with workers who do not trust those in charge and are more satisfied in their jobs (p.33). Trust in a supervisor leads to positive work behavior outcomes and is linked with greater productivity of employees
Respect has also been positively associated with workers’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment. According to Groot, the ability of the leader to convey caring, attentiveness, and support increases the likelihood of respect. Respect is a central element of the leader–worker relationship and directly tied to overall leader effectiveness.
Empathy is an important quality that is correlated with effective leadership and positive worker outcomes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and enhanced performance. Empathy is identified as being related to trust and respect and is defined as the ability to recognize and understand the emotions, feelings, and needs of others (p. 34). When workers feel listened to and understood, there is likely to be an increase in trust and respect within the leader–member relationship. Successful and effective leaders are not only sensitive to the needs and emotions of their members, but they can also regulate their emotions as well (p.34). Leaders who can understand the group’s emotions and regulate them prove to be among the most effective.
Safety is a key element of the leader–member relationship and contributes to effective leadership. When supervisors listen, show consideration and caring, and are fair, consistent, reliable, and supportive, among many other types of relations-oriented behaviors, workers are more likely to feel safe to ask questions, safe to be open to feedback and instruction, safe to give feedback to the leader, and safe to say, “I’m scared,” “I don’t understand,” “I need help,” or, “I don’t know what I’m doing.” Safety in the leader–member relationship is critical because the important people being served and supported by frontline helpers require that the workers are providing the most effective and highest quality service possible (p. 34).
The first challenge I noticed would be disclosure and sharing information. Communication is very significant in this project. However, there seems to be a lack of communication with regards to how people are truly feeling about this project. They do not seem comfortable speaking to each other about how they feel and how stressful this is. The workers seem to be confused and do not feel like they are all on the same page about what they should be doing and what’s expected of them. I would suggest that all members have a meeting that would help them all be on the same page. I think it would also be beneficial to promote communication and respect throughout the organization, because that appears to be lacking significantly at this time.
Groot, S. D. (2016). Responsive leadership in social services. [Capella]. Retrieved from https://capella.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781483325057/