Trident ANT100 module 1 and 2 case and SLP

| September 28, 2018

Module 1 – Case
STRESS AND THE NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSE
STOP!!! Review the text and diagram on the Home page and the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=8746″>introductory
Anatomy and Physiology tutorial before proceeding with this
assignment!
Case Assignment
Now study this diagram showing how the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5824″>body responds to
stressful stimuli. Notice that short-term stress follows one signaling pathway
that begins in the brain, travels out the spinal cord, and directly to the
adrenal glands. Many organs of the body will receive direct stress response
messages using this pathway as well. When the adrenal glands receive the signal
from this pathway, they release a stress hormone that signals many systems in
the body to prepare to either run away from the stressor (such as a predator or
an oncoming vehicle, for example), or fight. The part of the nervous system
that activates this response to acute stress is called the sympathetic
nervous system. After the stressful stimulus has passed, the parasympathetic (nicknamed
the “rest and digest” response) calms the nervous system and restores the
normal function of the body systems, maintaining homeostasis.
The Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
These two divisions of the nervous system counteract each other to allow
the body to receive the resources it needs to respond to a life-threatening
situation (more glucose to the brain to enhance thinking ability, more oxygen
and sugars to the muscles to run, etc.), and then return to a relaxed state. As
you saw in the diagram, the sympathetic response begins when a stressful situation
is detected by your sensory nerves, which make up the peripheral
nervous system, or PNS. The sensory nerve endings can deliver
this message directly to the brain through cranial nerves, which gather the
information we need to give us the senses of smell, sight, hearing, and taste.
Stress stimuli can also be detected by peripheral nerve endings throughout the
body and delivered to the brain via the spinal cord. The brain and the spinal
cord make up the central nervous system, orCNS.
View this diagram to review the anatomy of the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=10056″>sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous systems.
Notice that the “rest and digest” (parasympathetic) message
is delivered through cranial nervesthat originate in the brain
stem, and sacral nerves that originate in the sacrum at
the end of thespinal cord. The “fight or flight” (sympathetic) response
originates from the spinal cord. These nerve impulses are delivered by the CNS
to the effector organs responsible for reacting to the situation by either
simulating the organ to take action, or calming (inhibiting) the organ to
return homeostasis. In this situation, the nervous system sends a signal to the
endocrine system to handle acute, or short-term stress.
When the body is faced with long-term, or chronic stress, the endocrine
system predominantly responds by releasing hormones such as cortisol. You will
learn more about cortisol in the next module.
Read .trident.edu/content/enforced/41638-ANT100-FAL2014-1/Understanding%20the%20Stress%20Response%20-%20Harvard%20Health%20Publications.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=qEkbHmHpME0P9etqqmR6oH4E9&ou=41638″>Understanding
the Stress Response in Harvard Health Publications,
published by the Harvard Medical School.
From your reading address the following:
1. Define acute and
chronic stress. Provide examples.
2. What region of the
brain detects stress and interprets the stimulus as dangerous? What is its
function, and where does it relay the signal that conveys the danger? What
format is the signal in? What is the role of the region of the brain that
receives the stress alert?
3. What is a hormone?
What hormones are involved in the stress response? When are hormones released
in the stress response?
4. What is the HPA and
what role does it play in the stress response?
5. What
recommendations are given to counter stress?
Assignment Expectations
Organize this assignment using subtitles that summarize each question
above. For example, to answer Question 1, use the subtitle: Acute
versus Chronic Stress. Answer each question under the subtitle using
complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to include a
reference section at the end of your assignment that lists the sources that you
were required to read and any additional resources you used to research your
answers. Follow the format provided in the Background page.
Module 1 – SLP
STRESS AND THE NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSE
As you work through this SLP assignment, you will learn more about the
flexibility, or plasticity, of the brain. You have learned
about how the spinal nerves can deliver messages directly to effector organs
from the CNS through peripheral nerves that branch off of the spinal cord.
These nerves are collections of neurons bundled in connective tissue. Neurons
also communicate with each other within the CNS and establish circuits and
neuronal pathways.
First take some time to work through these tutorials about how neurons
communicate:
1. .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5530″>Neurons communicate with each
other
2. Neurons communicate
at .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5527″>synapses
3. Communication is
delivered via the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5529″>axon
4. .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5538″>Synapses and neurotransmitters: Be sure to
click on “Presynaptic neuron,” “synaptic cleft,” and “postsynaptic neuron.”
Throughout life, the connections between neurons in the brain develop
and change according to the genetic foundations that the individual inherits
from the parents, and the environmental influences to which the individual must
respond. For example, the abundance of one type of neuron over another, and the
neurotransmitter that each produces can be predetermined by the DNA an
individual inherits. However, an individual who is exposed to chronic stress
during developmental years may reinforce some response pathways more than individuals
who do not experience the same patterns of stress. These points are summarized
and explained further in this article “.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/stress-management/in-depth/stress/art-20046037?pg=2″>Stress
Management,” provided by the Mayo Clinic. Read this brief
article before continuing to the requirements for this SLP.
Continue your reading on how the brain handles stress and the idea of
plasticity at .brainfacts.org/about-neuroscience/ask-an-expert/articles/2012/long-term-stress-and-the-brain/”>BrainFacts.org,
a public information initiative of the Society for Neuroscience, The Kavli
Foundation, and Gatsby. Read the article, “How does the brain handle long-term
stress?” and follow the link to the article, “Effects of Stress on the
Developing Brain” in the right-hand column of links provided on this page.
Address these questions in paragraph format to complete the SLP assignment for
Module 1:
1. What is a
neurotransmitter and what is its function?
2. What
neurotransmitter is mentioned in the article, “How does the brain handle
long-term stress?”
3. How is short-term
stress described in this article?
4. Do a little
independent research on the hippocampus. Where is it located in the brain?
Briefly describe its function and neurogenesis. Insert a labeled picture into
your assignment illustrating its location.
5. How is long-term
stress differentiated from short-term stress in this article? What brain region
is involved in this comparison and what is its general function? Insert a
labeled picture of this region into your assignment illustrating its location
in the brain.
6. After reading the
article “Effects of Stress on the Developing Brain,” explain the implications
of chronic stress on the brain and the rest of the body reported by the
authors. What examples of chronic stressors are included?
7. What components of
parental care are described as being important determinants of brain
development in this article? What genetic influences are described as relevant
to the ability to handle stressful environments?
SLP Assignment Expectations
Organize this assignment using subtitles related to the content for each
question. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that
relate back to the question. Be sure to include a references section at the end
of your assignment that lists the sources that you were required to read and
any additional resources you used to research your answers. Follow the format
provided in the Background page.Module 2 – Case
CHRONIC STRESS AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE
STOP!!! BEFORE YOU PROCEED, BE YOU MUST HAVE READ THE HOME PAGE AND
VIEWED ALL LINKS AND TUTORIALS!!! You will need this information
to complete this Case Assignment.
Assignment Overview
Cortisol is an important hormone that is released in the stress
response. In this module assignment, we will look at this hormone more closely
to investigate:
1. the molecular
composition of cortisol
2. the signaling
pathway that elicits the production and release of cortisol
3. the cellular-,
organ-, and organ system-level response that results from this cell signal
Case Assignment
Read the following articles:
.dartmouth.edu/fall-2010/the-physiology-of-stress-cortisol-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis#.U-aGCONdVyw”>The Physiology
of Stress: Cortisol and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Randall, M. 2011.
Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science.
and
.trident.edu/content/enforced/41638-ANT100-FAL2014-1/ptsd-and-cortisol.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=qEkbHmHpME0P9etqqmR6oH4E9&ou=41638″>The
Relationship between Traumatic Stress, PTSD and Cortisol. Delaney, E. Naval
Center for Combat & Operational Stress Control.
After reading these articles, develop a 10–15 slide presentation in the
following format.
Slides 1 and 2: The cascade of hormonal signals described by
the section titled “Neurochemistry of Stress” of the Randall (2011) article.
Use simple ovals or circles to depict the regions that release specific
hormones in the hormone cascade that results in the release of cortisol. Label
the hormones and regions and organs involved using textboxes (both options
appear in the “Insert” tab of the PowerPoint program).
Slides 3 and 4: Label and diagram the kidney and adrenal
gland. Include the following:
·
Adrenal gland: cortex and medulla; regions associated with hormone
production and release; hormones released in each region
·
Kidney: cortex and medulla; region of water absorption and filtering;
region of urine collection
Slide 5: Diagram and label the HPA axis. Include the hormones released by
each component and their effect on the target organ(s).
Slide 6: Using your diagram from Slide 5, include the location of the
hippocampus and the negative feedback loop that occurs when the hippocampus
detects high cortisol levels. In the notes section, include a brief description
of the effects associated with elevated cortisol exposure to the hippocampus.
Slide 7: Using bulleted points, list factors that exacerbate the stress
response through activation of the HPA axis.
Slide 8–10: Do some additional research on PTSD. Diagram the regions of the
brain believed to be involved with symptoms of PTSD. Explain the relationship
between PTSD and depression and include relevant regions of the brain in your
labeled regions.
Slides 11–13: In bulleted points, summarize the varied findings in the studies
described in the article, “The Relationship between Traumatic Stress, PTSD and
Cortisol.” Include the relationships found between cortisol levels and
individuals with PTSD. In the notes include some explanations from the article
for the variability in cortisol levels in these individuals. Explain the
limitations of these studies mentioned by the author at the end of the article.
Slides 14 and 15: references cited, additional notes if
necessary
Assignment Expectations
For this Case Assignment you will develop a PowerPoint presentation that
is approximately 15 slides in length and addresses the requirements outlined
above. Place the text containing the answers to the questions above in the
Notes section of your slide presentation. Reference all of your answers in your
Notes sections with citations, such as (Murray 2014). Your slides should
contain labeled images that illustrate the text that you included in your Notes
sections. Do a Google search that includes the term “image” to find diagrams of
the required organs and systems (e.g., search for “adrenal gland image”).
Provide the website or reference used for each labeled image. Be sure your last
slide is a references slide that contains the full references cited on your
slides. Many resources are provided for you. Include these in your references
section. This assignment should not require much independent research.
Module 2 – SLP
CHRONIC STRESS AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE
Continue your investigation of
the effects of stress on brain function and behavior. Read more about the
hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex in these articles:
“.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-mindful-self-express/201208/how-prevent-stress-shrinking-your-brain”>How to Prevent
Stress from Shrinking Your Brain,” in Psychology
Today
“.rockefeller.edu/mcewen/stresshippo”>Stress Effects on Structure and Function
of Hippocampus,” by the Rockefeller University
Answer the following questions
in paragraph format to write an essay about the findings reported by these
articles:
Introduction
Paragraph:
First, do some research on how
the.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_04/d_04_cr/d_04_cr_peu/d_04_cr_peu.html”>amygdala,
hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex communicateand result in normal behavioral
response. You will begin your reading on the amygdala by following this link.
After reading this section, click on.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_04/i_04_cr/i_04_cr_peu/i_04_cr_peu.html”>several other
structures in the brainat the end of the page to read about
the interactions between these three regions. Briefly describe this pathway and
the behavior that results from the interaction of these regions using the
format and requirements outlined below.
Body
Paragraph 1
Summarize the effects of
glucocorticoids on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex reported in the
article.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-mindful-self-express/201208/how-prevent-stress-shrinking-your-brain”>How to Prevent
Stress from Shrinking Your Brain.
Body
Paragraphs 2 and 3
What effect on hippocampal
cells have stress hormones had in recent studies described by.rockefeller.edu/mcewen/stresshippo”>Stress Effects on Structure and Function
of Hippocampus? What effect have they had on the
amygdala in studies? What are the implications of these effects? HINT: What are
the functions of the regions and how might they be affected by changes in their
structure?
Body
Paragraph 4
What is neurogenesis and where
does it occur in the brain? What effect on the regeneration of hippocampal
cells is reported in this article? What is the mechanism?
Conclusion
Paragraph 1
Summarize the effects of
cortisol on this pathway by describing how PTSD can result from perpetuated
cortisol release and how this can result in depression by activating and/or
reinforcing.mcgill.ca/flash/a/a_08/a_08_p/a_08_p_dep/a_08_p_dep.html”>depression
pathways.
Conclusion
Paragraph 2
Describe the methods proposed
to counteract the negative effects of chronic stress in.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-mindful-self-express/201208/how-prevent-stress-shrinking-your-brain”>How to Prevent
Stress from Shrinking Your Brain.
SLP Assignment Expectations
For this assignment, write an
essay using the outline above. You are provided with many scholarly references
to complete this assignment. Include a References section that lists these and
any additional sources you used (refer to the Background page). For any
additional research you are required to do to complete your assignment, please
use scholarly references such as a peer-reviewed journal article or a
government-sponsored or university-sponsored website. As you read through your
sources, take notes from your sources and then write your paper in your own
words, describing what you have learned from your research. Direct quotes
should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas
must give credit to the original author, for example (Murray, 2014).Direct
copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit.

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