Topic: Political science.

| January 6, 2016

Topic: Political science. Feguson Riots. Portrayals of police brutality, anti-slavery resistance, power of political language. Political intentions behind different portrayals of the riots and the language used.
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Hi, this essay has a long title. It is:

“Violent protests of mostly Black Americans in Baltimore, New York or Ferguson were represented as violent riots against private property, uprisings against racial discrimination, resistance against the disproportionate use of force by the police and incarceration of young Black Americans, revolution and the coming of the new world order, to name just a few. Why are we seeing these events represented so differently and what do these different representations connote? Drawing on a rich history of black/anti-slavery resistance movements and the power of language discuss the political intentions behind these different representations.”

This political essay would like to focus on the riots sweeping America which are against police brutality. I believe it would be best to focus on the Ferguson riots as I am uploading sources specifically in regards to Ferguson which you can reference. Do mention the other riots, but only briefly. I have noticed a mistake I have seen from writers on this website and that is they will focus heavily on describing the events, in this case Ferguson riots. This is NOT a review of the riots. Use only a paragraph to describe what happened, then focus on the main points for your analysis. Your arguing points should focus on what is in the essay title, and focus on “why” these riots were represented as “violent riots against private property, uprisings against racial discrimination, resistance against the disproportionate use of force by the police and incarceration of young Black Americans, revolution and the coming of the new world order, to name just a few. Why are we seeing these events represented so differently and what do these different representations connote?” Your analysis should focus on the ‘representations’ of these riots by the ‘media’ and other groups. Obviously, one side would say they are violent riots, others will say it is resistance to racism and police brutality etc.… The question trying to be solved here is ‘why’ are there different representations? What are the political intentions of either groups involved by portraying the riots with their representations? For example, Fox News would say they are violent riots because they represent the white rich agenda in America, whereas Black Lives Matter protestors would say they are uprisings against oppression because they represent the working class black minority being oppressed. Now, for you to score marks on this essay, you must link your arguments with the history of black/anti-slavery movements such as the Black panthers and other groups, and when focussing on the specific representations try to focus on political intentions behind the representations, but also the language style being used. To help with this, I will be uploading a source which displays language use from Foucault, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, and other political thinkers etc. Here is an example of Foucault’s use of political words: “We must cease once and for all to describe the effects of “power” in negative terms: it ‘excludes’, it ‘represses’, it ‘censors’, it ‘abstracts’, it ‘conceals.’ In fact, power produces; it produces reality; it produces domains of objects and rituals of truth.” Notice how the language of “power” can be used in different terms, and those on both sides are using political language to convey their political intentions, such as these are “thugs” on the streets, or these are “revolutionaries” fighting against “police brutality”.

Since this essay is very intricate, specific and needs to have focus on the Ferguson riots, black/anti-slavery resistance history, the different representations of the riots from the different groups involved (mainly the police, media and protestors), and a focus on “why” these representations are different and what political language they are using to portray their political intentions behind their representations, I am asking for a top 10 writer in the division of political science. Please aim to score an 80+, a first of platinum quality. If there are issues, please let me know. All sources will be uploaded to the dashboard. PLEASE MAKE USE OF THEM AND REFERENCE THE SOURCES I WILL BE UPLOADING. Please also do your own independent research. If you are to use internet sources, please use reliable sources. Mainly focus on the use of books and the pdf sources of academic journals I will be uploading. Remember, I will be checking to see if you will use the sources I have uploaded. Please use Chicago referencing style and double space the work and use 12 size font.

For example, if you are to reference Chicago style with footnotes, use this format: Bal Sokhi-Bulley (2015), “Peforming Struggle: Parrhesia in Ferguson”, in Law and Critique, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp 7-10.

For bibliography, please use this format: Sokhi-Bulley, B (2015), “Peforming Struggle: Parrhesia in Ferguson”, in Law and Critique, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp 7-10.

And for final guidance, it would probably be best to break up your essay e.g introducion, focus on how media and police portrayed the riots, then on how black lives matters protestors portrayed them and link that to the black panthers and anti slavery history, and also focus on the political intentions behind each portrayal by each group and the language used. That way your essay will be coherent. Below is a list further readings/references should you need them. Since you are a top 10 writer i am sure you will have no issues. (please keep in mind to use the sources I have uploaded to the dashboard, they are of priority). Reading: Bethania Assy and Basak Ertur, ‘Supplements: Law and resistance – Turkey and Brazil’, Law and Critique, 25:1 (2014): 1 – 13. Etienne Balibar, Violence and Civility, Columbia University Press 2015. Sergio Bologna, The Tribe of Moles [various editions and on-line versions available]. Howard Caygill, On resistance: a philosophy of defiance, Bloomsbury, 2013. Howard Caygill, ‘Philosophy and the Black Panthers’, Radical Philosophy 179 (2013): 7 – 13. Noam Chomsky, Occupy, Penguin Books, 2012. Lucy Finchett – Maddox, ‘Seeing red: entropy, property, and resistance in the summer Riots 2011’, Law and Critique 23:3 (2012): 199 – 217. Oscar Guardiola_Rivera, ‘A Jurisprudence of Indignation’, Law and Critique, 23:3 (2012): 253 – 270. Willem Halffman and Hans Radder, ‘The Academic Manifesto: from an occupied to a public university’, Minerva [DOI 10.1007/s11024-015-9270-9] Available on BB9. Pavlos Hatzopoulos and Korinna Patelis, ‘The Comrade is Violent: liberal discourse of violence in anti-austerity Greece’, Theory & Event 16:1 (2013). Online. Ahmed Kadry, ‘Gender and Tahrir Square: contesting the state and imagining a new nation’, Journal for Cultural Research (2014). Online first. Juta Kawalerowicz and Michael Biggs, ‘ Economic deprivation, social disorganization and political grievances in London Riot of 2011’, Sociology Working Paper 2014-06, University of Oxford. [http://www.sociology.ox.ac.uk/materials/papers/paper-english.pdf] Paul Mason, Why is it kicking off everywhere, Verso 2012. Angus McDonald, ‘Nocturnal Games in the Streets’, Law and Critique, 23:3 (2012): 185 – 197. Tara Mulqueen and Anastasia Tatryn, ‘Don’t Occupy This Movement: thinking law in social movements’, Law and Critique, 23:3 (2012): 283 – 298. Thomas Nail, ‘Deleuze, Occupy, and the Actuality of Revolution, Theory & Event, 16:1 (2013). Online. Mark Neocleous, ‘Protest and Fail to survive: Le Pena and the Great Moving rights show’, Politics 23:3 (2003): 145 – 155. Louiza Odysseos and Anna Salmeczi, Third World Quarterly 36:6 (2015), See special issue on resistance and performativity of rights. Chris Rossdale, Special issue: occupying subjectivity – being and becoming radical in the 21st century, Globalizations, 12:1 (2015). Anna Salmeczi, ‘…we are being left to burn because we do not count: biopolitics, abandomnemnt, and resistance’, Global Society 23:4 (2009): 519 – 538. Sanford F. Schram, ‘Occupy Precarity’, Theory & Event 16:1 (2013). Online. Jason Smith, ‘Are We Really in the Age of Riots: An Interview with Alain Badiou’, Historical Materialism 23:2 (2015): 239 – 256. Martina Tanga, ‘Artists refusing to work: aesthetic practices in 1970s Italy’, Palinsesti 4 (2014): 35 – 51. Illan Rua Wall, ‘The Law of Crowds’. Available on BB9. Illan Rua Wall, ‘Tunisia and the Critical Legal Theory of Dissensus’, Law and Critique, 23:3 (2012): 219 – 236. Slavoj Zizek, Violence:six sideway decisions, Profile Books, 2009. Andreja Zevnik, ‘Maze of resistance: crowd, space and the politics of resisting subjectivity’, Globalizations, 12:1 (2015): 101 – 115. Joanna Bourke, What it means to be human?, Counterpoint, 2011. Nadine El-Nanny, ‘Ferguson and the Politics of Policing Radical protest’, Law and Critique, 26 (2015): 3 – 6. Sekou M. Franklin, After the Rebellion: black youth, social movement activism, and the post-civil rights generation, NYU Press, 2014. Chad Kautzer, ‘Good Guys with Guns: from popular sovereignty to self-defensive subjectivity’, Law and Critique 26 (2015): 173 – 87. Mark A. Largent, ‘The Greatest Curse of the Race: eugenic sterilization in Oregon, 1909 – 1983’, Oregon Historical Quarterly, 103:2 (2002): 188 – 209. Robert W.T. Martin, Government by Dissent: protest, resistance, and radical democratic thought in the early American Republic, NYU Press, 2013. Mark Neocleous, ‘Security, liberty and the myth of balance: towards a critique of security politics’, Contemporary Political Theory 6 (2007): 131 – 149. Shayla C. Nunnally, Trust in Black America: race, discrimination, and politics, NYU Press, 2012. Mervin L. Rogers, Theory & Event, 17(3): 2014; Supplement on Disposable Lives (articles on Ferguson, race and the shooting of Michael Brown). [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/theory_and_event/toc/tae.17.3S.html] Andrew Schaap, ‘Enacting the right to have rights: Jacques Ranciere’s critique of Hannah Arendt, European Journal of Political Theory 10:1 (2011): 22 – 45. Cathy Lisa Schneider, ‘Police Power and Race Riots in Paris’, Politics & Society, 36:1 (2008): 133-159. Bal Sokhi-Bulley, ‘Performing Struggle: Parrhesia in Ferguson’, Law and Critique, 26 (2015): 7 – 10. Suzanne Tessler, ‘Compulsory Sterilization Practices’, A Journal of Women Studies, 1:2 (1976): 52 – 66. Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department – Report, March 4, 2015. [available online] Also on the issue of Black Lives Matter, justice for Black Lives and the history of the Black Panthers movement. The Black Radical Tradition, compendium. Available on BB9. [also look out for Black Panthers: vanguards to revolution documentary that has just been released]. Charleston Syllabus –African American Intellectual History Society; a list of resources on Black American history, slavery in the South, race and religion, white American supremacy and an archive of civil rights movement [http://aaihs.org/resources/charlestonsyllabus/] Chris Hedges, ‘Rise of the New Black radicals’, Truth Dig, April 26 2015. [http://www.truthdig.com/report/page2/rise_of_the_new_black_radicals_20150426] Civil Rights Resource Guide – on line depository of key human right and civil resistance texts [http://loc.gov/rr/program/bib/civilrights/external.html] Corey Robin, ‘Baltimore’s new plantations: race, police and how little things have changed since Frederick Douglass’, Salon, May 3 2015 [http://www.salon.com/2015/05/03/baltimores_new_plantations_race_police_and_how_little_things_have_changed_since_frederick_douglass/] Richard Rothstein, ‘Why did Ferguson and Baltimore Erupt? Looking to the government-backed history of housing segregations’, In These Times, April 30 2015 [http://inthesetimes.com/article/17897/why-did-ferguson-and-baltimore-erupt-look-to-the-government-backed-history] Ed Vulliamy, ‘The rebellion in Baltimore is an uprising against austerity, claims top US academic’, The Guardian, May 2 2015. [http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/may/02/baltimore-rebellion-is-uprising-against-austerity-freddie-gray?CMP=share_btn_fb]

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