the virtual ballooning printouts and your

| March 14, 2016

Lab 4: – Mid-Latitude Cyclones and Severe Weather, Climate Classification
This lab takes you farther into understanding cyclonic activity and gives you a chance to do a little
forecasting. Then you will get more practice on matching climate types to temperature and
precipitation data. Once you have finished this lab you must turn it in by the due date.
Please follow these specific directions for turning in Lab 4 by the due date:
1) All written (typed please) answers should be placed in the D2L dropbox for Lab 4.
2) Use one of the following methods to turn in the virtual ballooning printouts and your
diagramed answer to Part A question 1.
a) Scan and place in the D2L dropbox (this is the preferred method)
b) Deliver to my office, 108 Upham Hall or my Geography Department mail box in
Upham 120.
c) Mail to me at the address below. The postmark will be considered the submission
date.

All answers should be typed in…not hand written

1

Part A: Understanding Mid-Latitude Cyclones
In part 1 of this lab, you will be using weather maps and your knowledge of mid latitude cyclones to determine what the
weather of Whitewater will be in the future. To begin, go through the diagrams below and label as indicated. The goal of
this exercise is to familiarize yourself with the different stages of the mid latitude cyclone and the weather that is
associated with each stage.
1 – 9. Referring to Figure A, fill in Table 1 with the descriptions of air temperature, wind direction and precipitation. (see
slides 18 and 21)

Figure A

TABLE
1
Location 1
Location 2
Location 3

2

Air temperature (warm,
cool, cold)

Wind direction (north,
northeast, east, southeast,
south, southwest, west,
northwest)

precipitation (prolonged light
rain/snow, short-lived strong
storms, clearing skies)

Figure B is a series of maps from January 29 th, 2015. All the maps are for the same time but each
displays a different aspect of conditions. We will use these six maps to consider the overall weather
picture as this cyclonic system was moving across the country. The LOW in question is centered in
the Midwest. Directions should be described using N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Remember the
winds are named for the direction they are coming from. Frontal movement is described as the
direction it is moving toward. Locations should be described in terms of the parts of the states
involved. (For example: western Kentucky or northern Texas.)
January 29, 2015 9:18am est

Figure B
3

Use the maps is Figure B to fill in TABLE 2

Table 2
10. Location of center of cyclonic
LOW
11. Direction of movement of the
warm front
12. Direction of movement of the
cold front
13. Warm sector precipitation
14.Cool sector precipitation
15. Cold sector precipitation
16. Warm sector wind direction
17. Cool sector wind direction
18. Cold sector wind direction
19. Warm sector temperature
range
20. Cool sector temperature range
21. Cold sector temperature range
22. Warm sector dew point range
23. Cool sector dew point range
24. Cold sector dew point range
25. From the water vapor image:
is the absolute humidity higher
north or south of the center of the
LOW?

4

January 29, 2015 9:18am EST
(14:18 GMT)

NOW consider this set of maps from about 5 hours later on the same day, January 29, 2015. Fill in
TABLE 3 as you consider how and why conditions have changed over the intervening 5 hours. The
question all apply to the cyclonic system that is now centered over SE Indiana.

January 29, 2015 2:33pm est

5

January 29, 2015 9:18am EST
(14:18 GMT)

Table 3

January 29, 2015 2:33 pm EST
(19:33 GMT)

26. SE Arkansas sector
(warm, cool or cold)
27. Arkansas dew point
(1)
28. Arkansas current
temperature (1)
29. N Mississippi wind
direction
30. E Alabama sector
(warm, cool, or cold)
31. Alabama dew points
(2)
32. Alabama current
temperatures (2)
33. What specifically happened in Arkansas to cause the change in conditions over the last 5 hours?
33. Did the Arkansas dew point rise, fall, or remain steady over the 5 hours?
34. Why did the Arkansas dew point change?
35. Did the Arkansas current temperature rise, fall, or remain steady over the 5 hours?
35. Why did the Arkansas current temperature change over the 5 hours?
Here is your chance to do a little weather forecasting. Fill in Table 4 with the conditions expected for
each location 8 hours later. (January 29, 2015 10:30pm EST )

Table 4
36. Arkansas
37. Mississippi
38. Alabama
39. W North
Carolina
40. Vermont

6

Temperature (higher
or lower)

Dew point
temperature (higher
or lower)

Wind direction (N,
NE, E, SE, S, SW, W,
NW)

Four more weather maps give us a chance to consider how the jet stream ties into surface
weather conditions.
The current surface map shows a cold front dipping far south and cutting across central Texas. High
pressure centered in eastern North Dakota dominates the entire central part of the country behind the
cold front. The jet stream map shows the flow of air at elevation with the arrows showing the wind
direction. The length of the arrows indicates wind speed. Notice that the long arrows are in the grey
areas that highlight the jet stream. As we saw in lab 2, the jet stream is not as orderly as it is
sometimes shown on weather maps. Use all four of these maps and what you have learned about
circulation associated with Highs and Lows to fill in Table 5.

7

Table 5
41. What is the surface
wind direction in southcentral Texas just north of
the cold front?
42. What is the jet stream
wind direction in southcentral Texas?
43. What is the surface
wind direction in northern
Indiana?
44. What is the jet stream
direction in northern
Indiana?
45. What is the surface
wind direction in eastern
Wyoming?
46. What is the jet stream
direction in eastern
Wyoming?
47. What is the current
temperature in eastern
Wisconsin?
48. What is the wind chill
in eastern Wisconsin?
49. Compare several
other current and wind
chill temperatures. In
terms of location relative
to the center of High
pressure, where are the
wind chill temperatures
lowest in comparison to
the current temperatures?
50. Just to think about
something more
pleasant…where in the
United States is the
warmest temperature
according to the map?

Part B: Severe Weather Hazards
8

In this part of the lab we look at the severe weather hazards of tornadoes and hurricanes.
The first part deals with tornadoes. Go to NOAA tornado environment browser and follow the
directions below step by step to fill in Tables 6-.
(http://www.spc.noaa.gov/exper/envbrowser/)
a) Locate the U.S. map with the grid dots. Each dot is a grid location for the data collection. Below the
map the statistics for tornado days, F2+ days, F4+ days, 10+ torn days, 2+F2+ days, and 5+F2+days.
(Let me clarify what this short hand means. Tornado days are the total number of days in the
recording period (2003-2011) with any tornados in the grid area. The F2+days are the days with
tornadoes of force F2 or greater The 2+F2+ days are days with two or more tornadoes of F2 force or
greater.) The dates of notable violent tornado days within the grid area are listed as well. Note the
close-up map to the right with the grid area circled and the tornado paths plotted. Below the close-up
map is a table of tornadoes listed by F force with the number of tornadoes (Num), the number of
fatalities (Fat), number of injuries (inj), etc. Then you see a graph of the 11 day running average
tornadoes per day. This is the seasonal pattern. The lower graph has the percentage of total
tornadoes per hour. This is the diurnal pattern.
b) On the grid map, click on the dot that is in the southeast corner of Wisconsin. Notice that the
latitude and longitude of the corners of the map show up in the black strip at the bottom of the map,
just below the pink F5 square. For each of the locations that you will go to, I will give the latitude and
longitude that should appear here. For southeast Wisconsin the latitude and longitude are 43.03,
-88.84. Please be sure to have the correct location for each map. The close-up map shows southeast
Wisconsin and a bit of northeast Illinois. Both Whitewater and Milwaukee are within this grid. Use this
page of information to fill in the first column of Table 6. To convert a 24 hour clock to a 12 hour clock,
subtract 12 from all numbers larger than 12. (14 on a 24 hour clock -12 = 2pm on a 12 hour clock).
For tornado count per decade, use the two numbers closest to your location. For example, for
southeast Wisconsin report 2-3. Note that for months you should fill in the actual names of the
months, not just the count. For this table you do not have to write in units.
c) Fill in the rest of the Table 6 with the requested information. For the last column, pick any location
you like. Fill in the location name at the top of the table.

9

Table 6:

southeast
Wisconsin
(43.03,
-88-84)

Central
Missouri
(36.79,
-93.66)

Central
Arkansas
(34.61,
-91.94)

Central
Alabama
(33.71,
-86.75)

Your pick
___________
_ (
,
)

51. Tornado days
52. F2+ Days
53. F4+ Days
54. 10+ Torn
Days
55. 2+F2+ Days
56. 5+F2+ Days
57. Most recent
violent tornado
day
58. Direction of
the longest
tornado path
59. Intensity of
the longest path
tornado
60. # of tornadoes
61. # of fatalities
62. # of injuries
63. F force of
category with the
most fatalities
64. Month(s) with
peak tornadoes
per day
65. Month(s) with
no tornadoes
66. Hour(s) of
peak tornado
activity (24 hour
clock)
67. Count per
decade

2-3

68. Using the data above and what you know about how latitude affects climate, explain why the
month of peak tornado activity changes along a north-south line.
69. Using the data above and what you know about energy in the atmosphere, explain why the time
of day for peak tornado activity is uniformly in the late afternoon and early nighttime no matter where
you are in the country.
10

70. What do you find the most interesting or surprising about this tornado data?

Part C: Climate Classification
Now let’s examine the climate variability around the world. Using the Köppen Climate Classification
System (outlined in a step-by-step fashion below), and either the climate data below or, for the last 3
stations information in you text, you will classify each the climates. Follow the steps outlined below
for each of the locations, and fill in Table 7. Milwaukee is done for you as an example.
Köppen Climate Classification System
First, classify the climate into one of the primary categories (A, B, C, D, or E). Then classify a
secondary classification. Note that r is annual rainfall (in centimeters); t is annual mean temperature
(in degrees Celsius).
PRIMARY CATEGORIES
A Tropical
B Dry
C Meosthermal
D Microthermal
E Polar
Procedure: B is the most complex to test, and we’ll do it first. With B, we are essentially testing
whether precipitation meets the needs of evaporation; if it doesn’t, it’s a dry climate.
Does at least 70% of precipitation occur in the warmer 6 months (northern hemisphere: AprSept)? If yes, use this formula:
If r>2t +28, it’s a B climate.
Does at least 70% of precipitation occur in the cooler 6 months (northern hemisphere: OctMar)? If yes, use this formula:
If r<2t, it’s a B climate.
If neither of the above are true, the location is not a B climate. You then move on to the other
choices, which are simple:
A If the coldest month is 18°C or warmer
C If the coldest month is between -3°C and 18°C, and the warmest month is above 10°C
D If the coldest month is below -3°C, and the warmest month is above 10°C
E If the warmest month is below 10°c
Once you’ve determined the primary category, look at the corresponding group of
subdivisions to describe the secondary categories, as outlined on the next page.
SECONDARY CATEGORIES
Once you have a first letter from above, you can then derive a secondary classification by the
following rules:
11

For A, we subdivide by the precipitation in the driest month.
Af Tropical rainy: Precipitation in driest month ≥ 6 cm
Am Tropical monsoon: Precipitation in driest month < 6cm and ≥ 10 – r/25
Aw Tropical wet-and-dry: Precipitation in driest month < 10 – r/25
For B, we subdivide by total precipitation and temperature.
Climate is BW if:
>70% of precipitation is in warmer 6 months (N. Hemi: Apr-Sep): if r < t+14
>70% of precipitation is in cooler 6 months (N. Hemi: Oct-Mar): if r < t
If above is not true, climate is BS (Steppe).
For both BS and BW climates, add:
h hot (e.g. BSh) if t ≥ 18°C
k cold (e.g. BWk) if t < 18°C
For C, we subdivide by wettest and driest months, and temperature.
Cs Mediterranean: Wettest winter month is 3 times as wet as the driest summer month; AND driest
summer month < 3cm.
Cw Subtropical wet-and-dry: Wettest summer month 10 times as wet as driest winter month.
Cf Subtropical humid: Neither Cs or Cw are true.
For all of the above, add:
a hot summers (e.g. Cfa) if warmest month > 22°C
b mild summers (e.g. Csb) if warmest month < 22°C, but four months > 10°C
c cool summers (e.g. Cwc) if neither a nor b are true.
For D, we subdivide by wettest and driest months, and temperature.
Dw Continental wet-and-dry: Wettest summer month 10 times as wet as driest winter month.
Df Continental humid: Not Dw.
For both Dw and Df, add:
a hot summers (e.g. Dfa) if warmest month > 22°C
b mild summers (e.g. Dfb) if warmest month < 22°C, but four months > 10°C
c cool summers (e.g. Dwc) if neither a nor b
d frigid winters (e.g. Dwd) if coldest month < -38°C (supersedes a, b, c)
For E, we subdivide by the temperature of the warmest month.
ET Tundra: Warmest month > 0°C
EP Ice Cap: Warmest month < 0°C
Table
7

Location

Primar
y
Catego
ry letter

71.

Milwaukee, WI

D

Seconda
ry
Categor
y
Letters
f

Third
Name of the climate
letter if
applicabl
e
b

Continental humid, mild
summers

12

72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.

Carlsbad, NM
Raleigh, NC
Oymyakon, Russia
Fairbanks, AK
Cairo, Egypt
Puntarenas, Costa

78.

Rica
Buenos Aires,

78.
80.

Argentina (pg 248)
Miami, FL (pg 240)
McMurdo Research
Station, Antarctica
(pg 254)

13

Numerical Climograph Data
Milwaukee, WI
Jan

Mar

-7
4.3

Jan

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

0.6

Ap
r
7.2

13.3

19

22

21

3.6

6.6

8.6

7.1

8.6

9.1

Mar

Jun

12

Ap
r
17

May

7.2

Fe
b
8.9

22.2

1.3

1

0.8

1

Jan

Nov

Dec

16.7

Oc
t
11

3.3

-3

8.9

7.4

6.1

6.1

5.3

Jul

Aug

Sep

Nov

Dec

27

28

27

23.9

Oc
t
18

11

7.8

2.5

2

3.8

3.3

3.8

4.1

0.5

0.3

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Dec

19.4

24

26

25

21.7

Oc
t
16

Nov

10

Ap
r
16

11

6.1

8.9

9.4

7.1

9.7

9.1

11

11

7.9

7.6

7.4

7.9

Mar

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Dec

8

18

22

18

9

Oc
t
-10

Nov

-22

Ap
r
-6

May

-46

Fe
b
-39

-32

-44

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

1.1

2.9

3.6

3.4

2.0

1.0

1.0

0.7

Jan

Ave. Temp.
(°C)
Ave. Precip.
(cm)

Fe
b
-4

Mar

4.4

Fe
b
6.1

8.9

Mar

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Dec

9.44

16

17

14

7.2

-16

-21

1.5

1

1

0.8

1.5

3.6

4.8

4.6

2.5

Oc
t
3.9
2

Nov

-12

Ap
r
-1

May

-22

Fe
b
-19

1.8

2

Jan
12.4

Feb
13.9

Mar
16.9

Apr
20.8

May
24.4

Jun
27.2

Jul
28.1

Aug
27.8

Sep
25.2

Oct
22.8

Nov
18.5

Dec
14.4

0.7

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.01

0

0

0

0

0

0.01

0.02

Feb
27.9

Mar
28.5

Apr
28.7

May
27.9

Jun
27.2

Jul
26.9

Aug
26.0

Sep
26.5

Oct
26.6

Nov
26.6

Dec
26.8

Carlsbad, NM

Ave. Temp.
(°C)
Ave. Precip.
(cm)
Raleigh, NC

Ave. Temp.
(°C)
Ave. Precip.
(cm)

Oymyakon, Russia
Jan
Ave. Temp.
(°C)
Ave. Precip.
(cm)
Fairbanks, AK

Ave. Temp.
(°C)
Ave. Precip.
(cm)
Cairo, Egypt
Ave. Temp.
(°C)
Ave. Precip.
(cm)

Puntarenas, Costa Rica
Ave. Temp.

14

Jan
27.2

(°C)
Ave. Precip.
(cm)

0.7

0.3

0.6

3.3

19.9

18.3

24.0

24.3

30.1

15.3

11.9

3.3

See text for remaining station data.

15

Climographs for the seven locations (note differences in axes between graphs)

See text for remaining station climographs

16

Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code: ESSAYHELP
Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code: ESSAYHELPOrder Now