The Literature Review assignment measures learning objectives by showing an understanding of research methods.

| October 22, 2018

Sally
Kuo
Literature
Review

Topic: Behavioral modification is the way to go for ADHD

Background
Statement: Kids and young adults are
increasingly getting diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or
ADHD recently compared to 10 years ago. More scientific research is needed to
explain the causes and provide effective treatment.

Article
1- The children’s attention project, a
longitudinal study of children with ADHD and non-ADHD control

Study introduction: The article mentions that about 5% of children worldwide have
issues in social functioning. The Children’s Attention Project is the first
such study in Australia, examining the mental health, social, academic and
quality of life outcomes for children with diagnostically-confirmed ADHD compared
to non-ADHD controls. They examined differential outcomes in hopes of mapping
ADHD, finding protective factors and identifying risks. (Sciberras et al.,
2013)

Methods used: The study involved students from 43 schools in Australia. A total
of 200 school children aged 6-8 with confirmed ADHD were used, matched with
non-ADHD controls. At baseline this involves parent completion of the NIMH
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV) to confirm likely ADHD
diagnostic status and identify other mental health difficulties, direct child
assessments (cognitive, academic, language and executive functioning; height
and weight) and questionnaires for parents and teachers assessing outcomes, as
well as a broad range of risk and protective factors (child, parent/family,
teacher/ school, and socio-economic factors).They will be followed for a total
of three years, at the one year, two year and third year mark. Linear
regression and chi-squared analysis was used for the data. (Sciberras et al.,
2013)

Results & Conclusions: There were no defined results in this study. I assume it is still
ongoing. Being the first of its kind, the study will also establish the
foundations for subsequent data collection into late primary school, and across
the transitions to adolescence and adulthood. (Sciberras et al., 2013)

Article 2- Self-reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder Symptoms Among College Students

Study
introduction: There are many college students who
feel that they have symptoms of ADHD. The goal of this study was to examine the
prevalence of self-diagnosis and its relationship to actual cases and true
treatments when compared to clinical diagnosis. There is not much data that
exists, so this study on college students serves an important purpose. (Garnier-Dykstra
et al., 2010)

Methods used: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups:
(1) no ADHD diagnosis (n= 972), (2) diagnosed with ADHD but no current
pharmacologic treatment (n= 54), and (3) diagnosed with ADHD with current
pharmacologic treatment (n= 54). ADHD was measured using the 18-item
scale called the ASRS that was based on the DSM-IV. the scale was scored by
summing the number of symptoms endorsed at a certain severity level, which
differed based on the items (sometimes,
often, or very often qualified for items 1–3,
9, 12, 16, and 18, and often or
very oftenfor items 4–8, 10, 11, 13–15, and 17). The study
was longitudinal stretching 4 years with 4 interviews. (Garnier-Dykstra et al.,
2010).

Results: People who were never diagnosed with ADHD had the lower number of
symptoms and score on the ASRS. Those that were diagnosed but not currently
using pharmacological treatment had higher scores than the ones not diagnosed.
The students that were currently on medication had the highest score as
suspected. In about 10% of the students, they had high level of ADHD symptoms
but were never diagnosed. (Garnier-Dykstra et al., 2010).

Conclusion: Detecting ADHD symptoms early on or identifying people with high
risk may be important because it gets them to a clinical assessment faster and
can lessen negative outcomes like substance abuse/dependence, poor academic
performance, poor work performance and social behaviors. It helps them lead
more normal lives. This study further shows that there is a need for more work
done in this disorder. More investigation also needed to be done on the reason
of why many people go untreated but would otherwise gain from clinical
treatment. (Garnier-Dykstra et al., 2010).

Article
3- Handling of children in elementary school
with ADHD

Study
introduction: Researchers in this study looked at
how elementary school students with diagnosed ADHD were handled in regular
elementary schools. They sought to connect the relationship of education and
ADHD in regards to if teachers treated diagnosed students any differently when
compared to their “normal” peers. Since this disorder is more prevalently
diagnosed at an early age and teachers are one of the first people to notice a
child displaying symptoms, this study served an important purpose. (Opić &
Mirošević, 2011)

Methods used: The study included 45 students from 5 area schools that have been
diagnosed medically with ADHD. This was a longitudinal study that lasted 2
years.A
questionnaire with 3 sets of variables was designed: socio-demographic
features, forms of behavior and teachers’ treatment of students. There were
other questionnaires and processes that resulted in “not true to completely
true” answers. Data in this study was placed into plots, and descriptive
statistics and regressions were used for analysis.(Opić
& Mirošević, 2011).

Results:On
a substrate of 20 variables related to teachers’ treatment of students, only
two variables indicate the existence of differences between the two groups of
participants. Those two variables were from the statements: “due to my
behavior, I often go to talk to the school counselor/head teacher” and “most
teachers complain to my class teacher about my behavior”. They offered the same
level of praise when the students did a good job.(Opić
& Mirošević, 2011).

Conclusions:There
was no statistically significant difference between the students diagnosed with
ADHD and the rest of the students regarding the way they are treated by their
teachers. The study mentioned that teachers often note that they have
continuous anxiety and uncertainty in classes with students with difficulties,
especially with ADHD syndrome, as they are not sufficiently and regularly
educated for the proper handling of such students, showing that more education
is needed with the disorder. Researchers found that teachers do not respond
adequately to the needs of students with ADHD symptoms, but forward the problem
to the head teacher, the school counselor or their colleagues. Looking from the
outside, since there is no significant different in treatment, it presents
another problem of ‘special students’ not getting the proper educational
support.(Opić & Mirošević, 2011).

Article
4- Effect of stimulant ADHD medicine children

Study
introduction: With the increases of ADHD diagnosis
in the United States, it was important to examine of the common treatment
options for the disorder- medication. The researchers of this study set out to
examine the negative effects of stimulant medications used to treat ADHD in
children. The heart rate and perceived exertion were examined. Only normal
prescribed doses for ADHD children from the doctor were looked at. (Mahon et
al., 2012).

Methods
used: The study included 45 volunteer students.
There were 20 diagnosed children- 18 boys and 2 girls, while the others did not
have ADHD. Twenty five (12 boys and 13 girls) were control subjects that did
not have ADHD. For the children on medication, they averaged 4.3 +/- 2.3 years
of being on stimulant medication and being at least 6 months continuously
taking them. Age, height, medication dosage and weight of the children were
obtained. Heart rate monitors were equipped and peak voluntary exertion was
tested. Slope-intercept, T-tests, standard error, confidence intervals, and
effect sizes were calculated. (Mahon et al., 2012).

Results: There were no differences in physical appearance among the children
in regards to age, weight, and height. For the group with ADHD the intercept
and slope values fell outside of the 95% CI observed in the control group.
Specifically, the intercept was higher and the slope was lower. Heart rate and
exertion had a linear relationship. The RPE-HR relationship was determined
individually and the intercept and slope responses were compared between
groups. The intercept was 132.4 ± 19.5 bpm for children with ADHD and 120.6 ±
15.7 bpm for children without ADHD. The slope was 7.3 ± 1.9 bpm/RPE for the children
with ADHD and 8.1 ± 1.6 bpm/ RPE for the children without ADHD. (Mahon et al.,
2012).

Conclusions: There is a slight altered relationship between the heart rate and
exertion in children using stimulant ADHD medicine. The authors mention that
special attention need to be given and the altered relationship be monitored
when exercising. (Mahon et al., 2012).

Article
5- State and Demographic Variation in parent-reported
medication rates for ADHD

Study
introduction: According to researchers, medication is
the single most effective way to treat ADHD symptoms, making it one of the most
common methods. The objective of this study was to estimate 2007 rates of
medication treatment of ADHD, by state and sex-stratified age. (Visser et al.,
2013).

Methods
used: Using randomized telephone interviews,
researchers were able to gather sufficient information on 73,122 children aged
4 to 17 years. Other data collected included if the children were diagnosed by
a doctor, whether or not they were taking medication, current ADHD status,
weight, and sex. The chi-squared tests and Wald F tests were carried out to
compare the prevalence and use of ADHD medicines. (Visser et al., 2013).

Results: Of US children aged 4 to 17 years, 4.1 million (7.2%) had a current
ADHD diagnosis in 2007, and approximately 2.7 million were taking ADHD
medication. The percentage of children with current ADHD and taking ADHD
medication was 4.8%. Medication rates were higher among boys than girls at
every age. Rates of medication treatment increased during early childhood for
both sexes, leveled off among older girls, and decreased among teenaged boys.
Results varied by states as well. The lowest state-based rates of medicated
ADHD were documented in 5 Western states (Nevada, California, Alaska, Hawaii,
and New Mexico); the highest rates were documented in 5 Southern states (North
Carolina, Louisiana, West Virginia, Arkansas, and Delaware). The percentage of
children with current ADHD taking ADHD medication was lowest in Nevada, Alaska,
and California and highest in Iowa, Missouri, and Mississippi. (Visser et al.,
2013).

Conclusions: Girls and boys with ADHD may have different medication needs over
time. The geographic variation the study pointed out is important and further
studies need to be implemented to account for the differences. (Visser et al.,
2013).

Government
Report- CDC information and Fast Facts

* The American Psychiatric Association
states in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
that 3%-7% of school-aged children have ADHD. However, studies have
estimated higher rates in community samples. (CDC, n.d.)

*The percentage of children with a
parent-reported ADHD diagnosis increased by 22% between 2003 and 2007 (CDC,
n.d.)

*Boys (13.2%) were more likely than girls
(5.6%) to have ever been diagnosed with ADHD. (CDC, n.d.)

*Prevalence of parent-reported ADHD
diagnosis varied substantially by state, from a low of 5.6% in Nevada to a high
of 15.6% in North Carolina. (CDC, n.d.)

*The highest rates of parent-reported ADHD
diagnosis were noted among children covered by Medicaid and multiracial
children. (CDC, n.d.)

References

Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. (n.d.). Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html

Garnier-Dykstra, L., Pinchevsky, G.,
Caldeira, K., Vincent, K., & Arria, A. (2010). Self-
reported
Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Among
College
Students. Journal of American College Health, 59(2), 132-136

Mahon, A., Woodruff, M., Horn, M., Marjerrison, A., & Cole, A.
(2012). Effect of
medication
use by children with ADHD on heart rate and perceived exertion.
Adapted
Physical Activity Quarterly, 29(1), 151-160.

Opić, S., & Mirošević, J. (2011). Handling
students with ADHD syndrome in regular
elementary
schools. Napredak, 152(1), 75-92.

Sciberras, E., Efron, D., Schilpzand, E.,
Anderson, V., Jongeling, P., Hazel, P., …
Nicholson,
J. (2013). The Children’s Attention
Project: a community
longitudinal
study of children with ADHD and non-ADHD controls. BMC
Psychiatry,
13(18), 1-11.

Visser, S., Blumberg, S., Danielson, M.,
Bitsco, R., & Kogan, M. (2013). State-based and
demographic
variation in parent-reported medication rates for Attention-
Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder, 2007–2008. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10(1),
1-10.

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