The function of EST in the modern society English for Science and Technology is designed for graduates an students of the Faculty of Sciences and Technology who are interested to enrich the scientific and technical English language and for people working or training to work as engineers and technicians. The material covers a wide range of technical areas, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics.
In learning a language, the aim is to be able to utilize the language in day-to-day tasks as also to meet the career demands.The needs of the students are crucial in teaching and one should ensure that learning does take place and the learners do achieve their long-term goals which include learners’ ability to communicate in the target language outside of classrooms and realization of various professional/career opportunities. The language in EST is also more specialized. This is not surprising given the fact that scientific inquiry is a very specific process which relates to control, manipulation and observation of situations and involves research assumptions, hypothesis formation, and theory construction.With the worldwide dissemination of science and technique, English for science and technology has been developed into an important language in the scope of science and technology. Since the 1970s’, it had aroused extensive attention and led to much research among different nations. English for science and technology plays an important role in scientific and technical communication all over the world.
The English for Science and Technology (EST) emerged in the 1950s.It was the outcome of the swift development of science and technology after World War?. Since the 1970s, the EST has aroused worldwide attention and led to much research among different nations. With more and more science papers published in English, the EST, a major variety of English, which is different from the daily English and literary English, has emerged as the times require with its own typical characteristics. And now it has become a significant language variety.The EST generally refers to both written language and spoken language about science and technology. It includes scientific books, papers, reports, experimental records and schemes; various scientific intelligence and scripts; the practical scientific handbooks (operative means including instruments, machines and tools); scientific films, videos and sound materials with the caption, etc.
An important and perhaps surprising feature of English for Science and Technology is that its normal style is common to both written and spoken communication.The EST has its own characteristics such as high-level specialization, new concepts, complicated structure, simple and clear language, more declarative sentences, extensive use of the passive voice, many complicated and long sentences, etc. Compared with other literary forms, it has higher-level scientific nature, organization, accuracy and closeness. Following are three examples. First, Computer science (or computing science) is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation, and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems.It is frequently described as the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information. According to Peter J.
Denning, the fundamental question underlying computer science is, “What can be (efficiently) automated? ” Computer science has many sub-fields; some, such as computer graphics, emphasize the computation of specific results, while others, such as computational complexity theory, study the properties of computational problems. Still others focus on the challenges in implementing computations.For example, programming language theory studies approaches to describing computations, while computer programming applies specific programming languages to solve specific computational problems, and human-computer interaction focuses on the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to people. Computer specialists develop and maintain the computer equipment and software programs that form the basis of the Internet. They make up the majority of professional and related occupations, and account for about 34 percent of the industry as a whole.Computer programmers write, test, and customize the detailed instructions, called programs or software that computers follow to perform various functions such as connecting to the Internet or displaying a Web page. Using programming languages such as Java, they break down tasks into a logical series of simple commands for the computers to implement.
Computer support specialists provide technical assistance to users who experience computer problems. They may provide support either to customers or to other employees within their own organization.Using automated diagnostic programs and their own technical knowledge, they analyze and solve problems with hardware, software, and systems. In this industry, they connect with users primarily through telephone calls and e-mail messages. Second, despite its relatively short history as a formal academic discipline, computer science has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society. These include: Started the “digital revolution”, which includes the current Information Age and the Internet.A formal definition of computation and computability, and proof that there are computationally unsolvable and intractable problems.
The concept of a programming language, a tool for the precise expression of methodological information at various levels of abstraction. In cryptography, breaking the Enigma machine was an important factor contributing to the Allied victory in World War II. Computer software engineers analyze user needs to formulate software specifications, and then design, develop, test, and evaluate programs to meet these requirements.While computer software engineers must possess strong programming skills, they generally focus on developing programs, which are then coded by computer programmers. Computer systems analysts develop customized computer systems and networks for clients. They work with organizations to solve problems by designing or tailoring systems to meet unique requirements and then implementing these systems. By customizing systems to specific tasks, they help their clients maximize the benefit from investment in hardware, software, and other resources.
Third, material science and engineering is a discipline that concerns the materials composition, manufacture ; process, structure, property and materials service behavior. Today, the major trend of the development of material science and engineering includes: research and development of nonmaterial and anomic structure is listed at the top of the research strategy of materials science. Materials technology concerning about information technology, biotechnology and energy technology is developed very fast, and attracts more attention.The research of optimizing materials properties by complexity or integration of different materials emerged one after another. Characterization and measurement of microstructure, new mechanisms and technology of super precision assembly and machining become a powerful motivation for the exploration of material science. More attention is paid to computational materials. Nowadays development of economic society is facing the challenges of energy, resources, and environment.
Ample attention should be given to the life ycle costs during research and application of materials, i. e. the materials should possess high performance and also should be easy for manufacturing and machining, at the same time, less dependence on resources and energy, and less pollution or destruction of environment. Therefore, the life cycle costs and control technology of the materials are the most important tasks with universality, urgency and long term view. These will also be the most important scientific problems that affect the development and modernization of our country.At present and in the future, in focusing on the whole life-cycle cost and cost-control, there are some core technology problems: (1) The prediction, design and control of usage behavior of materials: by clear understanding of relationship between structure and performance, accurate forecasts are carried out on material performance, leading to the realization of precise process-control and design; (2) Efficient recycling of material; (3) Integration of structure and function in materials; (4) Analysis and testing technique of materials.Around 2050, a complete innovation system of materials science and technology will be established in China.
The whole life-cycle, cost and cost-controlling will be the most important factors guiding the research ; development and application of materials. Fundamental research, capability of new processing and equipment development will be the first class in the world. Fulfill the strategy transition from large materials country to strong materials country. The development of advanced materials can fully meet the requirement of high-technology, renewable energy sources, life ; health and environmental protection.Development of the advanced materials can support and lead development of economy society. To fulfill the targets listed above, breakthroughs of material science and technology in the future may include: (1) Development of computational materials science makes it possible to systematically and accurately understand the relationship between microstructure and properties, which makes it possible for performance prediction and materials design, and to control accurately the production process. (2) Various new materials such as new energy, information, biology materials, nonmaterial, and biomimetic materials, are studied and applied.
Meanwhile, the properties of the traditional materials are improved. (3) The integration of materials structure and function will be realized. Smart materials and high intelligent multi-structure composite materials will be developed. (4) Energy-efficient will be realized in production of high quality raw materials. Green preparation of materials and low-cost, high-efficiency recycling technology will be widely used. (5) Continuous near-net-shape manufacturing technology, integration of apparatus technology, intelligent controllable processing will also be widely brought into operation. 6) Service behavior including property evolution and mechanisms under extreme conditions will be understood clearly.
Failure process of materials and structural device could be estimated accurately. Process of the whole life cycle could be evaluated and the damage of materials could be monitored and repaired. (7) With the development of science and technology, in-situ measurement and characterization of large volume could be realized. (8) Materials data will be improved and systematization. The whole life-cycle, cost and cost-controlling will be considered during manufacturing, design and choice of materials.A perfect materials system with Chinese feature will be established. Technology is defined as the practical application of science to commerce or industry.
It is the technical means people use to improve their surroundings. It is also knowledge of using tools and machines to do tasks efficiently. We use technology to control the world in which we live. Technology is people using knowledge, tools, and systems to make their lives easier and better. People use technology to improve their ability to do work. Through technology, people communicate better.The huge number of technological innovations in telecommunications exemplifies this.
Every month there will be a new hand phone out in the market. The Internet is also getting more sophisticated, which allows one person to communicate to another person at the other end of the world. Technology allows people to make more and better products. It is through biotechnology that we get better and more insect-resistant food. Our buildings are better through the use of technology. Often the terms, technology and science, are confused. Technology is said to be “applied science”.
This is not true.Science deals with the natural world. Technology is the study of the natural laws that govern the universe. Science tells us that objects will fall to the earth (law of gravity). Science tells us that steel exposed to oxygen will rust (chemistry). Science tells us that cross-pollinating plants will produce predictable results (biology). On the other hand, technology deals with the human-made world.
It is the study of ways people develop and use technical means – tools and machines. It tells us how to control the natural and human-made world. This is not to say science and technology are unrelated.Science deals with “understanding” while technology deals with “doing”. Science helps us know how to do something efficiently. Technology is rapidly changing our world. It is bringing us services beyond our grandparents’ wildest dreams.
It seems that with each year the pace of change quickens. Each new process or invention makes still other advances possible. For example, the advancement of the movie industry (from silent movies to talking movies) allows for computer technology to be incorporated into movie-making. The meanings of the terms science and technology have changed significantly from one generation to another.More similarities than differences, however, can be found between the terms. Both science and technology imply a thinking process, both are concerned with causal relationships in the material world, and both employ an experimental methodology that results in empirical demonstrations that can be verified by repetition (see Scientific Method). Science, at least in theory, is less concerned with the practicality of its results and more concerned with the development of general laws, but in practice science and technology are inextricably involved with each other.
The varying interplay of the two can be observed in the historical development of such practitioners as chemists, engineers, physicists, astronomers, carpenters, potters, and many other specialists. Differing educational requirements, social status, vocabulary, methodology, and types of rewards, as well as institutional objectives and professional goals, contribute to such distinctions as can be made between the activities of scientists and technologists; but throughout history the practitioners of “pure” science have made many practical as well as theoretical contributions.Indeed, the concept that science provides the ideas for technological innovations and that pure research is therefore essential for any significant advancement in industrial civilization is essentially a myth. Most of the greatest changes in industrial civilization cannot be traced to the laboratory. Fundamental tools and processes in the fields of mechanics, chemistry, astronomy, metallurgy, and hydraulics were developed before the laws governing their functions were discovered. The steam engine, for example, was commonplace before the science of thermodynamics elucidated the physical principles underlying its operations.In recent years a sharp value distinction has grown up between science and technology.
Advances in science have frequently had their bitter opponents, but today many people have come to fear technology much more than science. For these people, science may be perceived as a serene, objective source for understanding the eternal laws of nature, whereas the practical manifestations of technology in the modern world now seem to them to be out of control. With the development of our science and technology and the increasing status of EST in our society, more and more learners are becoming interested in this subject.