The UK authorities late announced its ambitious renewable energy program which includes supplying 75 of the entire UK electricity supply through renewable energy beginnings. In line with its new mark on the renewable energy development, I strongly believe as the main executive of ‘Edinburgh Renewables ‘ ( ER ) that our legion experiences on air current farm undertakings will lend to accomplishing the given mark successfully. As such, this study will demo the authorities ‘s new renewable development program in 2025 and sketch an action program for ER to present 30 % of the new mark capacity. In add-on the study will analyze whether authorities part can assist ER towards accomplishing the given mark. Finally, steps to work out the intermittence of the air current resource will be recommended.
2. Renewable Energy Development Target
Based on the authorities ‘s new renewable energy policy, ER has set up a new mark that aims to bring forth 30 % of the authorities ‘s new renewable mark capacity in 2025 ( 75 % of the entire electricity supply ) . This will be attained through using new coevals of offshore air current farms under our direction. The inside informations of the new marks on renewable energy development are outlined as follows:
i?? Government Target in 2025
i?? Total Electricity Demand in 2025: 450TWh
i?? Electricity Supply From Renewable Energy: 338TWh ( 75 % of entire demand )
i?? ER Target in 2025
i?? 30 % of Renewable Energy Development Target
i?? 102TWh ( Energy Production ) / 33GW ( Installed Capacity )
i?? Offshore air current farms ( Capacity Factor = 35 % )
Demand Forecast & A ; Total Installed Capacity
The entire electricity demand to put up the mark is forecasted to make 450TWh in 2025 by utilizing the same premise used for the Public Interest Research Centre prognosis by 2050. [ 1 ] Based on the new authorities policy, 75 % of electricity energy demand at 338TWH would be provided by renewable energy beginnings. ER will supply 30 % of the mark through the offshore air current farms development which would hold entire installed capacity of 33GW by 2025. The inside informations are described in Annex-1.
Why Offshore Wind Farms?
ER chose to intensively concentrate on offshore air current farms development, given higher prospective potency, higher capacity and higher cost decrease outlook of offshore air current engineering. In add-on, higher mean air current velocity, lower turbulency every bit good as less restraint on turn uping the site finally increases the deployment of offshore air current farms in the long footings when compared to onshore air current farms options. [ 1 ] Despite higher capital costs of the offshore air current farms undertaking, higher capacity factors can countervail this to some extent. [ 4 ] Additionally, the analysis in Renewable Energy Roadmap 2020, shows that cost of offshore wind engineering can be significantly reduced compared with other renewable engineerings by developing supply ironss and advanced engineerings. [ 2 ]
The capacity factor varies depending on the mean average air current velocity of geographical location and air current turbine features [ 4, 5 ] but sing future engineering development and operational experience accretion, the capacity factor of 35 % which was assumed in Renewables Advisory Board ‘s 2020 Vision was applied. [ 1 ]
3. Action Plan by 2025
The action program for 2025 was divided into two stages. This action was chosen in order to ease the accomplishment of the new mark in 2025. During the first stage ( 2013 to 2020 ) ER plans to take part and put in developing some of the offshore air current farm undertakings under Round 2 Extension, Round 3 Program and Scottish Territorial Waters Program of The Crown Estate. [ 6 ] This attack non merely leads to finishing the assorted undertakings on clip as planned, but it is besides expected to excite other seaward undertakings in the long term through continuously developing the advanced engineerings needed to cut down undertaking costs. Furthermore, based on undertaking experiences of the first stage, during the 2nd stage ( 2015 to 2020 ) ER will rush up developing new undertakings with larger capacity that can enable us to accomplish the concluding end in 2025.
i?? 1st Phase ( 2013 ~ 2020 )
i?? Action Plan: Accelerate the planned offshore air current farms undertakings and develop advanced engineering to cut down the undertaking cost
i?? Total Target Capacity: 14GW
i?? Site: Entire 13 sites
i?? Total Seabed Area: 3,986km2 [ 6 ]
i?? 2nd Phase ( 2015 ~ 2025 )
i?? Action Plan: Develop the big graduated table offshore air current farms to accomplish the mark in 2025
i?? Total Target Capacity: 19GW
i?? Site: Feasible sites among the Crown Estate Round 3 Zones ( determined by site study )
i?? Total Estimated Seabed Area: 1,691 ~ 3,193km2
Entire Seabed Area
The entire seabed country required for both the 1st stage and 2nd stage of the program is estimated at 7,179 km2 which is about a ten percent of the size of Scotland. Harmonizing to the Crown Estate, entire seabed country of the 1st stage of the program is about 3,986km2. [ 6 ] On the other manus, entire undertaking country of the 2nd stage of the program varies depending on different air current turbine array. Given 5D by 10D turbine array [ 8 ] with a turbine rotor diameter of 164m [ 14 ] , the estimated site country for the 2nd stage is 3,193km2. However, based on the optimum air current turbine array examined by Christie [ 9 ] , the entire country for 2nd stage can be reduced to 1,691km2. The elaborate execution agenda and appraisal of the needed seabed country are described in the Annex-2.
4. Necessary Financial Support and Investment of Public Money [ 2 ]
Due to the higher capacity factor and high prospective potency in UK, offshore wind engineering is expected to be the individual biggest part to renewable energy coevals for energy security and decarbonisation in the hereafter. [ 1, 3 ]
However, sing that offshore air current engineerings are at the beginning of the commercial deployment phase, the current capital cost remains about twice expensive than cost of onshore air current engineerings. [ 4 ] Therefore, the uninterrupted authorities fiscal support and investing are important for the successful execution of our action program. The necessary supports chiefly include fiscal support to cut down undertaking cost and to minimise investing hazard. Furthermore, the authorities investing in seaward air current farm undertakings and grid betterment undertakings is necessary to accomplish the ER mark in 2025.
i?? Financial support to cut down cost of offshore air current engineerings
i?? Supporting R & A ; D and Testing Facilities to develop cost effectual engineerings ( i.e. EMEC )
i?? Developing supply concatenation of the equipment and building ( i.e. National Renewables Infrastructure Fund )
i?? Financial support to minimise investing hazard
i?? Supplying a stable and long term fiscal support mechanism to procure fundss for the offshore air current development ( i.e. ROCs, New Electricity Market Support Mechanism ) [ 18 ]
i?? Direct investing from public fund
i?? Taking an active function of the authorities in direct funding sing the ample needed loaning ( i.e. Green Investment Bank Fund )
i?? Supplying advanced funding mechanisms to fit the long term hazard and wages profile of renewable energy investings ( i.e. Green Energy Bonds/Green Energy ISAs )
i?? Investment on onshore grid betterment
i?? Ensuring timely investing on the onshore transmittal web to present power generated from offshore air current farms
5. Grid Interconnection as Measures for Energy Supply Reliability
As the intermittent nature of air current resources consequences in undependable energy supply, in general back up coevals installations and energy storage systems are required to utilize air current energy as the base burden electricity coevals system. [ 10 ] In add-on to the conventional steps ER will procure the dependable electricity supply by developing grid interconnectedness undertakings in North Sea.
The supergrid such as grid interconnectedness with European Continent can be one of the solutions to equilibrate a variable and unpredictable coevals end product from offshore air current. [ 16 ] Harmonizing to NorthConnect [ 11 ] the planned grid connexion between Scotland and Norway is expected to heighten the electricity supply as the high incursion of air current coevals in the UK and Hydro coevals in Norway complements each other.
The proposed supergrid in the North Sea will enable to associate the UK grid to renewable coevals dominant states such as Norway, Denmark and Germany with a entire transmittal capacity of 26GW. [ 2, 12, 15 ] Therefore, the electricity trading through the supergrid will assist non merely to better the electricity supply dependability but besides to accomplish the authorities renewable development mark in 2025.
A assortment of researches province that the UK has the abundant seaward resources along with its coastline and in peculiar offshore air current resources with the entire practical potency capacity of 116GW. [ 1 ] Despite huge potency, it seems clear that there presently exist several drawbacks of offshore wind engineerings such as high capital cost, proficient restraint and intermittence nature. However, ER is convinced that our strong vision and believable action program on offshore air current farms will lend to accomplishing the authorities ‘s renewable energy development mark in 2025. Furthermore, the uninterrupted coaction with authorities, makers and developers will excite offshore wind farm development and contribute to maximising the value of the abundant offshore air current resource in the UK. aˆ?