Social psychologists Rind & Bordia (1996) investigated

| August 31, 2017

Social psychologists Rind & Bordia (1996) investigated whether or not drawing a happy face on customers’ checks increased the amount of tips received by a waitress at an upscale restaurant on a university campus. During the lunch hour a waitress drew a

happy, smiling face on the checks of a random half of her customers. The remaining half of the customers received a check with no drawing (18 points).

The tip percentages for the control group (no happy face) are as follows:

45% 39% 36% 34% 34% 33% 31% 31% 30% 30% 28%

28% 28% 27% 27% 25% 23% 22% 21% 21% 20% 18%


The tip percentages for the experimental group (happy face) are as follows:

72% 65% 47% 44% 41% 40% 34% 33% 33% 30% 29%

28% 27% 27% 25% 24% 24% 23% 22% 21% 21% 17%

A.) Enter the data above into SPSS. You will enter in two variables for each restaurant

patron: 1) which experimental group they belonged to (1 = no happy face, 2 = happy

face) and 2) the tip percentage left. Note that tip percentages will get entered into a

single column, not separate columns for each group.

B.) Obtain a frequency distribution for both variables. Use the frequency distribution to

screen your data for entry errors. Did you find any “odd” values that needed to be


K.) Obtain descriptive statistics (mean, median, standard deviation, range, skewness,

kurtosis) separately for both the experimental and control groups. To do this, select

Compare Meansand Means…from the Analyzepull-down menu. Note that you will

have to click the Options…button to select certain statistics (e.g., the median).

L.) Examine the skewness and kurtosis statistics and the frequency distribution for the

experimental group. What shape best characterizes the distribution? Incorporate an

interpretation of the skewness/kurtosis statistics and evidence from the frequency

distribution (e.g., cumulative percent) into your discussion. That is, if you believe the

distribution is skewed, what information from the frequency distribution backs up your


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