Social Phsycology

| September 16, 2020

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAMINATION (CH 12, 13, & 14) SPRING 2011 MULTIPLE CHOICE: 3 points each 1. An act performed voluntarily to help someone else when there is no expectation of receiving a reward is known as a. nurturance b. altruism c. pro-social behavior d. modeling 2. True altruism is defined by a. the circumstances surrounding the behavior b. the person’s intentions c. the person himself or herself d. culture 3. Pro-social behavior is defined as a. any act that helps others, even if it is done to make yourself look good b. a voluntary act to help others with no thought of reward . helping that serves to perpetuate one’s genes d. none of the above 4. Ethan volunteers to help with the local Special Olympics in order to build up his resume for job hunting.
His behavior would best be described as a. prosocial behavior b. altruism c. reactance d. reciprocity 5. Researchers have found that we are most likely to be helpful to a. anyone who asks b. strangers c. friends d. all of the above 6. Which of the following is NOT one of the theoretical perspectives on helping described in the text? a. evolutionary psychology b. a learning approach c. a decision-making perspective . social impact theory 7. Evolutionary psychologists have observed that a. prosocial behavior is rare among non-human animals b. prosocial behavior is common among primates, but not in other animal species c. prosocial behavior is observed among animals only when a mother is protecting her young d. prosocial behavior is common among non-human animals
8. Evolutionary theorists believe that altruism among animals and humans persists because a. helping provides the helper with emotional rewards b. helping increases survival value c. helping is rarely risky to the helper d. elping makes an individual appealing to potential sexual partners 9. The notion that any genetically determined trait that has a high survival value will tend to be passed on to the next generation is a cornerstone of a. evolutionary psychology b. genetic determinism c. learning theory d. the nature/nurture debate 10. Sociobiologist Robert Trivers has argued that only ________ is biologically based. a. prosocial behavior b. reactive altruism c. reciprocal altruism d. maternal altruism 11. Laws that require bystanders to an emergency to help a potential victim are based on a a. norm of reciprocity . norm of social justice c. norm of social responsibility d. diffusion of responsibility 12. Which country has the highest murder rate?

a. Finland b. Great Britain c. Canada d. the United States 13. According to materials presented in your text, _____ percent of violent crimes are committed by strangers. a. 0. 6 b. 44 c. 56 d. 90 14. In explaining the origins of aggression, Freud focused on the concept of a. childhood learning b. pathological behavior c. instinct d. self-esteem 15. The definition of aggression as “any behavior that hurts others” would be the preferred definition of a. ognitive dissonance theorists b. exchange theorists c. social impact theorists d. learning theorists 16. One problem with a behaviorist definition of aggression is that does not take into account a. displacement b. learning history c. intentions
d. sanctioned aggression 17. An unprovoked criminal act that hurts others would be considered __________ aggression. a. prosocial b. sanctioned c. aggressive d. retaliation 18. You see a television news report featuring a policeman foiling a bank holdup by killing two of the robbers. This is a case of a. reactance b. sanctioned aggression . prosocial aggression d. frustration-aggression 19. You see a television news report featuring a shopkeeper who shot and killed a masked gunman who was trying to rob his store. This is a case of a. covert aggression b. prosocial aggression c. social exchange d. sanctioned aggression 20. One of the most common sources of ________ is an attack or intrusion by another person. a. frustration b. anger c. low self-esteem d. reactance 21. The interference with or blocking of the attainment of a goal is known as a. frustration b. normative blocking c. reactance d. anger 22.
A child who sees an adult on television hitting another person and then hits his little brother is engaging in a. disinhibition b. dehumanization c. imitation d. aggression anxiety 23. The realization that health is a psychological as well as a physical issue has given rise to the field of a. epidemiology b. oncology c. psychological anthropology d. health psychology 24. The study of health psychology focuses on a. preventing and treating illnesses b. promoting and maintaining health c. improving the healthcare system d. all of the above 25. The _____ model says health is social, biological, and psychological. . psychosocial b. sociological c. sociobiological d. biopsychosocial 26. Annual cancer deaths in the United States could be reduced by _____ percent if everyone stopped smoking. a. 5-10 b. 25-30 C. 55-60 d. 85-90 27. Your text describes disorders such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes as a. preventable b. epidemic c. political d. ecological 28. Deaths due to vehicular accidents could be reduced by _____ percent if drunk driving were eliminated. a. 5 b. 20 c. 50 d. 85 29. Which of the following is described by your text as “preventable? ” a. diabetes b. Heart disease c. Cancer d. All of the above 30.
Which of the following is classified by your text as a “health behavior? ” a. being no more than ten percent overweight b. not eating between meals c. eating breakfast each day d. all of the above 31. The reason many people do not engage in health behaviors is a. they do not know the behaviors most associated with better health b. they have biological predispositions that encourage unhealthy behavior c. the consequences of health behaviors often do not appear for many years d. all of the above
32. Which of the following is NOT a basic health belief, as identified in your text? a. general health values b. sychological reactance c. self-efficacy d. personal vulnerability T/F (1point each) 33. It is very rare for people to offer help to strangers. F 34. Freud is the person most associated with evolutionary approaches to helping. F 35. An uneven distribution of economic resources in a country is associated with higher murder rates. T 36. Most scientists agree that aggression is learned; it does not come from inherited tendencies. F 37. Health beliefs have not done a very good job of predicting most health behaviors. F 38. Adolescents who engage in risky sexual behaviors are unlikely to use condoms consistently. T

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