Relevant literatures refer to those that are of import in supplying the in-depth cognition needed to do alterations in pattern or to analyze a selected job. The related literatures for this survey are divided into the undermentioned classs.
2.1 Incidence, prevalence, causes and hazard factors of respiratory diseases.
2.2 Effectiveness of nebulization in kids with respiratory conditions.
2.3 Effectiveness of nebulization with O in kids with respiratory diseases.
2.1 Incidence, Prevalence, Causes and Risk factors of Respiratory Diseases in Children:
Every twelvemonth ARI ( including both upper and lower ) histories for an estimated 3.9 million deceases worldwide. It is estimated that India, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Nepal together account for 40 % of the planetary mortality load. On an norm, kids below 5 old ages of age suffer about 5 episodes of ARI per kid every twelvemonth, which accounts about 238 million onslaughts. ARI is responsible for about 30-50 % of outpatient visits to wellness attention installations and about 20-40 % of paediatric admittances to infirmary. It is besides a taking cause of hearing loss as a sequele of ague otitis media ( Vashishth, 2010 ) .
Acute respiratory infections continue to remain among the chief causes of child mortality. Even in the general population, they are the taking cause of acute morbidities globally. Estimates suggest that the incidence denseness of ARI among under five kids in developing and developed states is 0.29 which histories for 151 million and 5 million new episodes each twelvemonth. India with 43 million bear the maximum brunt of respiratory diseases in the development states ( Sanjay Chaturvedi,2010 ) .
A transverse sectional community based survey was conducted to find the prevalence of and the socio demographic factors that contribute bronchial asthma among kids aged 6-15 old ages in Mangalore ; India. Using random sampling technique, 559 kids were selected as samples. The prevalence of bronchial asthma was found to be 10.3 % with a higher prevalence in male childs ( 12.1 % ) .A important reverse additive tendency with increasing age, and a positive association with household history of asthma were besides observed in the survey ( Jain.A, Bhat.V, 2010 ) .
A prospective cohort survey was conducted in Cochin, India to find whether anaemia is a hazard factor for childhood asthma. Two hundred kids between the age group of 2-18 old ages, with both anaemia and upper and lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in the survey as samples. Hundred kids with anaemia were taken as the survey group and another 100 without anaemia were taken as control group. All the kids were subjected to probes like CBC appraisal, CRP appraisal, Mantoux trial and chest X ray. Pneumonic map trial was performed on kids above six old ages of age who showed the grounds of asthma. Peripheral vilification, serum ferritin and serum Fe adhering capacity were estimated for all anaemic kids. The survey found anaemia is a hazard factor for childhood asthma and anaemic kids were 5.75 times more susceptible to wheezing onslaughts when compared to kids without anaemia ( Ramakrishnan.K,2010 ) .
An extended study was conducted in India to find the clip tendencies and overall prevalence of bronchial asthma in kids. The survey consequences showed that the variables like differences in samples, primary result variables, incompatibility in age class, rural-urban fluctuation, standards for positive diagnosing, and survey instruments confounded the result variables. The average prevalence was 4.75 % . Overall average prevalence was found to be 2.74. Childhood asthma among kids between the age group of 13 – 14 old ages was lower than that in the younger kids between 6 – 7 old ages of age. The prevalence was more in urban dwellers and in male kids. A broad inter-regional fluctuation in prevalence was besides observed by the research worker. The survey findings indicated that the load of bronchial asthma in Indian kids was higher than that was antecedently understood ( Ranabir Pal, 2009 ) .
An extended study was conducted in Italy with the purpose of look intoing the effects of cars on asthma symptoms and to analyze the cogency of ego reported traffic exposure.33, 632 kids of age 6-7 old ages and striplings were enrolled in the survey. Data was collected by administering standardised questionnaire to the parents and besides by self coverage of exposure by kids. External and internal proof methods were used to measure the possible response prejudice of ego reported traffic exposure. The consequences showed that the kids populating in intense traffic countries are at increased hazard of respiratory diseases. As the features of the population were specific, the consequences of proof of ego reported traffic exposure were non generalized. ( Migliore.E, et.al,2009 ) .
A descriptive survey was conducted to happen the association between cooking fuels and the hazard of respiratory disease in preschool kids in Lucknow, India. Mothers of 650 kids from 28 urban hapless vicinities were selected by utilizing random sampling technique. Respiratory disease was assessed by detecting the marks and symptoms. Exposures included the types of cookery fuels and continuance of their usage in the old hebdomad and other possible forecasters of respiratory disease. The point prevalence of respiratory disease was 14.5 % . Majority ( 56.0 % ) , of the households used wood as the cookery fuel. Other fuels used included kerosine ( 24.2 % ) , coal ( 19.2 % ) , LPG ( 15.4 % ) , and droppings bars ( 8.6 % ) . Use of droppings bars, as a cookery fuel was associated with respiratory diseases in the community. Other variables like age, weight, sex, household income, and family construction were non associated with disease. Use of droppings bars as cooking fuel and overcrowding increased the hazard of respiratory diseases ( Shally Aswathi, et.al, 2007 ) .
A descriptive survey was conducted in Tanzania to find the effects of biomass fuels, wood coal and kerosine on ARI in kids under five old ages of age. Approximately 85 % and 15 % of kids were from biomass fuels and wood coal or kerosine utilizing places severally. Average ARI prevalence was 11 % . The prevalence of ARI across assorted fuel types used in cooking did non vary much from the national prevalence. The findings suggested that to accomplish meaningful decrease of ARI prevalence, it is necessary to hold a displacement from the usage of biomass fuel, charcoal/kerosene for cooking to clean fuels such as gas and electricity ( Kilabuko, 2007 ) .
A descriptive survey was conducted to measure the load of respiratory upsets in rural India. The survey showed that poorness and unhealthy environment were strongly related to respiratory upsets. Bronchitis and asthma were the taking cause of respiratory diseases ; pneumonia and pneumonic TB ranked one of the five causes of deceases in rural India. Asthma and bronchitis prevalence rates in Karnataka, Gujarat, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh were above national norm. Prevalence of pneumonic TB was high in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Gujarat whereas Tamilnadu and Maharashtra recorded lowest prevalence. Though national broad wellness programs have succeeded in cut downing human death of respiratory diseases to a certain extent ; there is a great demand for improved and effectual area-specific wellness plans and societal and economic development in rural countries to accomplish the coveted wellness ends ( Ramanakumar.V, et.al, 2005 ) .
A prospective community based survey was conducted in Greenland to place the hazard factors of acute respiratory infections in kids. Open cohorts of 288 kids between the age group of 0-2 old ages were included in the survey. All the kids were monitored hebdomadally for episodes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Analysis of hazard factors was carried out utilizing a multivariate Poisson arrested development theoretical account which was adjusted for age. Attending a child-care centre and sharing sleeping room with grownups were identified as the hazard factors for upper respiratory tract infection in kids. Hazard factors for lower respiratory tract infections included male gender, go toing a child-care centre, exposure to passive smoke, and sharing a sleeping room with kids aged 0aa‚¬ ” 5 old ages. Breastfeeding was identified to be a protective factor for lower respiratory tract infections. The population attributable hazard of lower respiratory tract infections associated with inactive smoke and child-care centres was 47 % and 48 % , severally ( Koch.A, 2003 ) .
A infirmary based instance control survey was undertaken in Delhi, India to find hazard factors associated with terrible lower respiratory tract infection in under-five kids. 512 kids including 201 instances and 311 controls were enrolled in the survey. Healthy kids go toing Pediatrics outpatient section for immunisation during study period were enrolled as controls. On stepwise logistic arrested development analysis it was found that deficiency of breastfeeding, upper respiratory infection in female parent and siblings, terrible malnutrition, cooking fuel other than liquid crude oil gas, inappropriate immunisation for age and history of lower respiratory tract infection in the household were the important subscribers of ague lower respiratory tract infection in kids under five old ages of age. Sexual activity of the kid, age of the parents, instruction of the parents, figure of kids at place, anaemia, unequal thermal consumption, type of lodging were non identified to be important hazard factors of ague lower respiratory tract infection. ( Broor.S, 2001 ) .
A descriptive survey conducted in United States of America found that respiratory diseases contribute seven of the top 15 grounds for sing a doctor among kids under 15 old ages of age. The survey besides found environmental baccy smoke as a broad spread environmental pollutant that has been linked with respiratory jobs ( Gergen.P, 2001 ) .
2.2 Effectiveness of Nebulization in Children with Respiratory Diseases:
A descriptive survey conducted to find the issues in the direction of wheezing in under 5 kids at community degree in India showed that wheeze are likely to vanish after 2-3 rhythms of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in one tierce to half of the kids. Nebulized beta-2 adrenergic drugs ( salbutamol ) were found to be the pillar of bronchodilator therapy for the intervention of wheezing in kids. These drugs can be given to immature kids by atomizers with an affiliated mask. Delivery of bronchodilators through a nebulizer driven by an electric compressor or O is an effectual and good established technique. However, the demand for electricity to run the compressor, deficiency of handiness of high flow O2 cylinders and high cost of equipment bound the everyday usage of nebulization technique in most primary wellness attention scenes in developing states like India. ( Gupta.P, Shah.D, 2010 ) .
A randomised clinical test was conducted in Bangladesh to find the effectivity of nebulization with a combination of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide over adrenaline nebulization in kids with acute bronchiolitis. A sample of 60 kids with age less than 2 old ages was divided into two equal groups. Group I received salbutamol and ipratropium bromide nebulization and group II received adrenaline nebulization. The intercessions were provided twice at 6 hours interval and post appraisals were done after 30 proceedingss of each nebulization. The consequences showed a important betterment in respiratory parametric quantities in both groups. However, L-adrenaline was found to be more effectual than a combination of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide nebulization. ( Kadir. M.A, 2009 ) .
A descriptive survey was conducted in Hyderabad, South India to determine the form of nebulization among the medical practicians in private scene in the community. A elaborate questionnaire was sent to 1,000 practising doctors consisting of 600 general practicians, 200 paediatric specializers, 150 medical advisers and 50 thorax doctors. The analysis revealed that the common drugs used for nebulization were: Salbutamol ( 80 % ) ; Budesonide ( 65 % ) ; and a combination of Salbutamol & A ; Ipratropium ( 60 % ) . Common indicants for nebulization in the community were: Acute Severe Asthma, Acute Exacerbation of COPD, Acute Broncholitis, Acute Exacerbation of interstitial lung disease and unexplained ague respiratory hurt. Nebulization in the place scenes were largely prescribed by chest doctors ; bulk ( 95 % ) of them prefer direct nebulization without O and merely 5 % used O to drive the nebulized drug. Pediatricians and chest doctors preferred to utilize a face mask whereas general practicians and internists used the oral cavity piece straight, without utilizing a face mask. Trained nurses or respiratory healers were available to oversee or learn nebulization technique in less than 5 % of scenes. Sing the pattern of nebulization, bulk ( & gt ; 85 % ) used atomizers for short periods and did non wait till the chamber was to the full emptied of the solution. Merely 10 % of practicians believed in uninterrupted nebulization ( Viggs.A, 2007 ) .
A randomised dual blind survey was conducted in Thailand to measure the effectivity of salbutamol- ipratropium bromide nebulization over salbutamol nebulization.74 kids aged 3 aa‚¬ ” 15 old ages were included in the survey. Children in the control group were administered with 3 doses of nebulized salbutamol -ipratropium bromide assorted with normal saline and the intervention group received 3 doses of ipratropium bromide.at an interval of 20 proceedingss. Respiratory parametric quantities were assessed at 40, 70,100 and 120 proceedingss after the intervention. The consequences showed that the per centum alteration in peak expiratory flow rate was high in intervention group without statistically important difference. The survey concluded that both salbutamol -ipratropium bromide nebulization andsalbutamol nebulization has similar consequence in bettering peak expiratory flow rate. ( Watanasomsiri.A, 2006 ) .
A instance survey was done in Coimbatore sing the nursing attention of kids with lower respiratory tract infections. The findings revealed that repeated respiratory infections are common in kids and are likely to be among the most common complaints. Hyper reactive air passage disease is one of the major causative factors for lower respiratory tract infections in kids and a comprehensive nursing attention is indispensable to forestall the complications of lower respiratory tract infections in kids. ( Suganthi.S, 2005 ) .
A quasi experimental survey was conducted in Haryana, India to measure the extra benefit of combined salbutamol and ipratropium bromide nebulization in acute asthma with moderate badness. Fifty wheezing kids between the age group of 6aa‚¬ ” 14 old ages were taken and divided into two equal groups. Group I kids were nebulized with three doses of Salbutamol entirely and Group II kids were given combined nebulization of Salbutamol and Ipratropium bromide nebulization at 20 proceedingss interval. Children were observed at 15, 30, 60,120,180 and 240 proceedingss interval. The survey showed a important betterment in PEFR get downing from 30 proceedingss and enduring for the full survey period of 240 proceedingss in both the groups. ANOVA analysis showed a better consequence with 2nd group. The survey concluded that combined nebulization with Salbutamol and Ipratropium bromide was more good than Salbutamol nebulization in acute asthma of moderate badness ( Sharma. A, 2004 ) .
A dual blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical test was conducted in New York to measure the effectivity of nebulization over metered dose inhalator therapy. Convenient trying method was used to choose 168 kids aged 2 -24 months as samples. The atomizer group received a placebo metered dose inhalator with a spacer followed by Ventolin nebulization and the spacer group received Ventolin by metered dose inhalator with a spacer followed by nebulization with isosmotic saline solution. Pulmonary Index Score and oxygen impregnation were measured ab initio and 10 proceedingss after each intervention. The consequence showed that the atomizer group had a significantly high mean in initial Pulmonary Index Score compared with the spacer group and the survey concluded that nebulizer therapy is every bit effectual as metered dosage inhalators with spacer for the intervention of wheezing in kids aged 2 old ages or younger ( Delgado.A, et.al,2003 ) .
2.3 Effectiveness of Nebulization with Oxygen in Children with Respiratory Diseases:
An experimental survey was conducted with the aim of mensurating the FiO2 during O nebulization and jet driven nebulization and to compare those values observed with those steps during criterions oxygen therapy. The survey was conducted in corpse. An ET tubing was inserted into the distal tracheal appendage of a cadaverous caput and cervix specimen and was connected to a pump which simulates different respiratory forms. An electro chemical O analyser was used to mensurate FiO2 under different nebulization and O bringing conditions. The survey concluded that O bringing through rhinal device during air driven nebulization significantly increases FiO2 compared with standard O therapy ( Vincent Caille, Stephen Erbman, 2009 ) .
An experimental survey was conducted in Mexico to compare the effectivity of salbutamol -ipratropium bromide nebulization with auxiliary O and salbutamol- ipratropium bromide administered in device of mensural doses with spacer chamber in handling wheezing crisis in children.45 wheezing kids between the age group of 1 to 12 old ages were included in the survey. Both groups received the proposed intervention 3 times at 20 proceedingss interval. The survey showed a important betterment in respiratory parametric quantities with salbutamol ipratropium bromide administered by devices of mensural doses with spacer chamber. The survey concluded that the disposal of salbutamol ipratropium bromide with devices of mensural doses was more effectual than its disposal via a atomizer with auxiliary O for handling kids with wheezing crisis. ( Castro.P, 2009 )
A randomised dual blind placebo controlled test was conducted in Turkey to measure the effectivity of salbutamol nebulization and ipratropium bromide nebulization in handling kids with moderate to severe bronchiolitis.70 babies admitted in the infirmary for the first clip with wheezing were included in the survey. The kids were divided into three groups having salbutamol entirely, ipratropium bromide entirely and placebo saline solution entirely via a atomizer supplemented with O at a flow rate of 6-7 litres per minute. Post appraisals were done at 30 proceedingss, 8 hours and 24 hours. The consequences showed a rapid betterment in respiratory parametric quantities in both bronchodilator groups than in the placebo group. But these drugs did non alter the natural class of the disease. ( Karaday.B, 2007 ) .
A comparative prospective-retrospective cohort survey was conducted in Spain to find the effectivity of salbutamol delivered via a metered dosage inhalator with spacer and nebulization with O for handling acute asthma in children.580 kids below the age of 14 old ages were included in the study.Out of that 321 prospective cohorts were administered with salbutamol via MDI with spacer and 259 retrospective cohorts received salbutamol via an O driven nebulizer at a flow rate of 7 litres per minute. The survey showed that the figure of doses of inhaled bronchodilator needed, the admittance to the infirmary and the Numberss of kids necessitating a stay in observation unit were similar in both groups. The average length of stay in the exigency section was somewhat shorter in metered dose inhalator group. The survey concluded that the disposal of bronchodilators utilizing metered dose inhalator and nebulization have similar consequence in handling kids with acute asthma aggravation. ( Fernandez, 2004 ) .
A quasi experimental survey was conducted to measure the effectivity of nebulization with O in 21 terrible wheezing paediatric admittances over a twelvemonth period. All kids received three doses of nebulized salbutamol one time in every 20 proceedingss. Eleven of them received nebulization with O and the remainder received nebulization without O. Oxygen impregnation was measured along with clinical badness graduated tables during intervention. 3-5 % autumn in O impregnation was observed during intervention in the control group. At the terminal of intervention, the respiratory rate was somewhat higher in this group. No important autumn [ 0-1 % ] was observed in nebulization with O group. The survey concluded that hypoxemia during nebulization with air driven atomizers can easy be prevented by simple add-on of O beginning to the air recess of available atomizers ( Major. P. Singh Tomar, Lef Col A.R.Shurpali, Col.B.N.Biswal, 2004 ) .
A quasi experimental survey was conducted in Thailand sing the flow rate of O for nebulizer therapy. The survey topics were stable COPD patients, in whom the hazard of hyperoxic induced hypercapnia is less than in the acute aggravation phase. The survey recommended that the COPD patients should have bronchodilator drug via the atomizer, particularly in acute aggravation phase, with O flow rate of 6 litre per minute and the medical forces must closely detect the patients for clinical marks of hypercapnia to forestall the jeopardy of C di oxide keeping ( Charoenratenakul.S. 1995 ) .
In an experimental survey conducted in England, 10 patients with stable asthma were studied to see whether the flow rate used to drive a atomizer was clinically of import. Each patient received 1 milligram of salbutamol in 2 milliliter of isosmotic saline solution via a nebulizer driven by piped O at 8, 6 and 4 litres per minute on separate randomly allocated occasions. The consequence showed that the clip for nebulization was significantly longer as flow rate was reduced and there was no important difference in the response with bronchodilator intervention ( Hadfield.J.W, 1986 ) .
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