# real money demand function

1. Suppose the real money demand function is:

Md/P

= 1500+ 0.2 Y – 10,000 (r+pe).

Assume M= 4000, P= 2.0,pe= 0.01,

and Y= 5000. Note:

we are holding P and Y constant in this problem until we get to case #2, see

below.

a) What is the market clearing real interest rate?

Show your results on a real money supply,

real money demand diagram and label this initial equilibrium point as point A. Be

sure to label your graph completely! Be

sure to put relevant shift variables in parentheses next to the appropriate

function.

Case #1

b)

Suppose Bernanke and the Fed were successful in their campaign to raise

inflationary expectations to 4% (.04).

Why would they want to do this? Use the Fisher equation to support your

argument.

c) Solve

for the real interest rate that clears the money market given the change in

inflationary expectations. Please show work and Label this new point as point B

on your diagram.

d))

Explain how this strategy of raising inflationary expectations is

supposed to stimulate output. Recall

that output is equal to C + I + G! Be very specific as this question is worth

10 points. Hint: The price of current consumption in terms of future consumption and

the user cost of capital most

definitely needs to be in your response.

Case #2

e) Let us

return to our original conditions.

Please redraw the original graph

locating point A (this is withpe= 0.01, we are holding expected inflation constant in case #2). We

now experience some economic growth so that Y = 6000. This is the only change.

Resolve for the market clearing real rate of interest and label on your diagram

as point B. Please show all work. Be

sure to put relevant shift variables in parentheses next to the

appropriate function.

f)Now explain exactly why the real rate of

interest had to change the way it did to clear the money market. Please be clear with the intuition being sure

to refer to the bond market in your

answer. You should begin your response with “At the same real rate of interest, the money market is no longer

clearing. In particular money demand …..” you can finish the rest.

g))Suppose the Fed wanted to keep real

interest rates constant at their original level. Suppose also that the money multiplier is

0.8, which is consistent with reality since the Fed began paying interest on

reserves beginning in October 2008. What

exactly would the Fed have to do to keep real interest rates constant at their

original level? Be specific with regard to the type and quantity of

open market operations the Fed would need to conduct to be successful in

keeping real interest rates constant at their original level.

h)Finally, explain the movement to the

new equilibrium in the money market given the Fed expansion and show on your

diagram as point C. Be sure to refer to

the bond market as you did in part f).

In fact, you should start your response the same way.

2..

During the Great Recession there was very much turmoil in financial markets and

as a result, money became more attractive relative to many non-monetary assets.

The graphic below is from a WSJ article from the fall of 2011. The left hand panel shows that the bid/ask

spread for stocks was increasing which suggests that stocks, the non-monetary

asset we are focusing on in this question, are becoming less liquid..doc#_ftn1″ title=””>[1]

The graphic on the right can be thought of as a measure of risk and the

implication in viewing the graphic is that stocks are becoming riskier..doc#_ftn2″ title=””>[2]

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a) Draw a money market diagram labeling the

initial equilibrium as point A. Note

that this is a ‘generic’ graph meaning that there are no numbers. Now lets

pretend that we have two portfolio shocks to money demand, much like above so

that 1) non-monetary assets become less liquid (left hand panel) and 2)

non-monetary assets become more risky (right hand panel). Show exactly how your diagram is effected and

explain exactly why real interest rates changed the way they did. Label this new equilibrium as point B.Be sure to put relevant

shift variables in parentheses next to the appropriate function.

b) Given

that the economy is weak and the unemployment rate is much higher than that

associated with NAIRU, the Fed wants real rates to fall, not rise. Explain exactly what the Fed would need to

do. This is referred to as accommodating

the shock to money demand. Label this as

point C on your diagram.

c) Now

explain how your answer would change if instead the shock to money demand was

real. That is, the same movement in the

money demand curve from above was not caused by portfolio shocks but was caused

by a change in real output. Are the

policy implications the same or are they different? Explain. (hint: the term

‘potential growth rate of the economy’ should be in your answer).