Began his career attempting to scientifically validate Fraud’s theory of depression. When the failed, he began researching a cognitive model of depression that results in his rejection and isolation from the psychiatric. Arnold Lazarus Grounded his work in cognitive and social learning theories, developed multimode therapy. Which involves a multi faceted assessment and encourages technical eclecticism to effect change across all areas all areas of functioning and experience.
When People Understand or have Insight into how they needlessly disturb themselves and create an unhealthy and dysfunctional feelings and behaviors, that insight often will help them change and make themselves less disturbed. But understanding and insight is not enough. In order to significantly change themselves, They almost always have to pinpoint their irrational philosophies work at changing them to more functional and self helping attitudes. Cognitive, Emotive-evocative and Behavioral. Ellis 2003- Rational emotive behavior therapy (REST) the first of the cognitive behavior therapies, and nowadays it continues to be a major cognitive behavioral approach. 0 REBUT has a great deal in common with the therapies that are oriented toward cognition and behavior as it also stresses thinking, Judging, deciding, analyzing, and doing. The basic assumption of REBUT is that people contribute to their own psychological problems, as well as to specific symptoms, by the rigid and extreme beliefs they hold about events and situations. REBUT is based on the assumption that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors interact significantly and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship. Moreover REST’s basic hypothesis is that our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs, which influence the evaluations and interpretations however we make of the reactions we have to life situations. Through the therapeutic process, clients learn skills that give them the tools to identify and dispute irrational beliefs that have been acquired and self-constructed and are now maintained by self-indoctrination.
In addition learn the process themselves how to replace such ineffective ways of thinking with effective and rational cognitions, and as a result they change their emotional reactions to situations. View of Human Nature Rational emotive behavior therapy is based on the assumption that human beings are born with a potential for both rational, or “straight,” thinking and irrational, or “crooked,” thinking. People have tendencies for self-preservation, happiness, hinging and verbalizing, loving, communion with others, and growth and self- actualization.
They also have inclinations for self-destruction, avoidance of thought, procrastination, endless repetition of mistakes, superstition, intolerance, perfectionism and self-blame, and avoidance of actualization growth potentials. View of Emotional Disturbance Based on the premise that we learn irrational beliefs from significant others during childhood and then re-create these irrational beliefs throughout our lifetime. The therapeutic should be actively reinforce our sulfanilamide beliefs through the recesses of autosuggestion and self-repetition, and we then behave in ways that are consistent with these beliefs.
Hence, it is largely our own repetition of early-indoctrinated irrational beliefs, rather than a parent’s repetition, that keeps dysfunctional attitudes alive and operative within us. In addition therapist teaches clients how to feel sad, but not depressed. “l must do well and win the approval of others for my performances or else I am no good. ” “Other people must treat me considerately, fairly, kindly, and in exactly the way I want them to treat me. If they don’t, they are no good and they deserve to be condemned and punished. “l must get what I want, when I want it; and I must not get what I don’t want. If I don’t get what I want, it’s terrible, I can’t stand it, and life is no good for depriving me of what I must have. ” A-B-C Framework The A-B-C framework is central to REBUT theory and practice. This model provides a useful tool for understanding the client’s feelings, thoughts, events, and behavior (Wolfe, 2007) Assumption in Cognitive Therapy Fully acknowledging that we are largely responsible for creating our own emotional robbers.
Accepting the concept that we have the ability to change these disturbances significantly Recognizing that our emotional problems largely stem from irrational beliefs Clearly observe beliefs Seeing the value of disputing such self-defeating beliefs Therapeutic Process According to Ellis (2001 b; Ellis & Harper, 1997), we have a strong tendency not only to rate our acts and behaviors as “good” or “bad,” “worthy’ or “unworthy,” on the other hand likewise to rate ourselves as a total person on the basis of our performances.
These marks found one of the main sources of our emotional assistances. As a result, most rational emotive behavior therapists have the general goal of teaching clients how to separate the evaluation of their behaviors from the evaluation of themselves their essence and their totality Pearce and how to accept themselves in spite of their imperfections. Therapist’s Function and Role The therapist has specific tasks, and the first step is to show clients how they have incorporated many irrational absolute “should,” “oughtn’t,” and “musts. Moreover somewhat dispute clients’ irrational beliefs and encourages clients to engage in activities that will counter their self-defeating beliefs and to replace their rigid “musts” with preferences. A second step in the therapeutic process is to validate how clients are keeping their emotional disturbances active by continuing to think illogically and unrealistically. In other words, because clients keep re programming themselves and the client’s responsible for their own psychological problems. The Third Step helping clients modify their thinking and minimize their irrational ideas.
Even though it is unlikely that we can entirely eliminate the tendency to think irrationally and reduce the frequency of such thinking. Lastly, step in the therapeutic process is to challenge clients to develop a rational philosophy of life so that in the future they can avoid becoming the victim of other irrational beliefs. Embark upon only specific problems or symptoms can give no assurance that new illogical fears will not emerge. REBUT focal point here-and-now experiences and clients’ present ability to change the patterns of thinking and emoting that they constructed earlier.
The therapist does not apply much time to exploring clients’ early history and making inspections between their past and present behavior unless doing so will aid the therapeutic process. Nor does the therapist usually explore clients’ early relationships with their parents or siblings. Instead, the therapeutic process stresses to clients that they are presently disturbed because they still believe in and act upon their self- defeating view of themselves, other people, and the world.
Cognitive Approaches Grounded on the idea that Psychological Disorder are characterized by dysfunctional thinking based on dysfunctional beliefs Usually incorporate a persuasive cognitive methodology in the therapeutic process. Demonstrate to clients in a quick and direct manner what it is that they are continuing to tell themselves. Teaches client’s how to deal with these self-statements so that they no longer believe them, encouraging them to acquire a philosophy based on reality. REBUT relies heavily on thinking, disputing, debating, challenging, interpreting, explaining, and teaching.
Disputing Irrational beliefs ; Disputing irrational beliefs. The most common cognitive method of REBUT consists of the therapist actively disputing clients’ irrational beliefs and teaching them how to do this challenging on their own. Clients go over a particular “must,” absolute “should,” or “ought” until t hey no longer hold that irrational belief, or at least until it is diminished in strength. Doing cognitive homework Clients are expected to make lists of their problems, look for their absolutist beliefs, and dispute these beliefs.
Functioning homework, clients are encouraged to put themselves in risk- taking situations that will allow them to challenge their selecting beliefs. Where in client with a talent for acting who is afraid to act in front of an audience because of fear of failure may be asked to take a small part in a stage play. Bibliographer Assigning clients readings that will be Motivating and Instructional for dealing with their presenting Problem. However Therapist/Counselor assign Self Help Books to Read and Also Suggest to Read a Inspiration Inspirational Literatures.
Cinema Therapy – Similar to bibliographer, Cinema Therapy Involves assigning client to watch a movie that will speak to the problem issue. Labeling Cognition Philosophical questioning and direction questions, Some client find it helpful in identifying and label distorted thinking to reduce it sway on them. Counselor/Therapist will reinforce to help the client to practice labeling distorted hinging in session so that clients can transfer this skill to their everyday lives.
Arbitrary inference: ” Jumping to conclusions” Selective Abstraction: ” Filtering out the Positive” Personalization: ” All Boys are like that” Magnification and minimization: ” Emphasizing the negative and Ignoring the positive”. Personalization: ” Exaggerating one’s responsibility or misinterpreting neutral comments”. Dichotomous Thinking: “Black and White” Misleading: ” Attaching an extreme or personalized label to a person or situation”. Mind Reading: ” Assuming negative thoughts and intentions on the part of others”.