| August 14, 2017

31. Studies of performance appraisal systems show that the most influential elementon the effectiveness of the system is the:a) number of employees for whom the rater is responsible.b) intelligence and experience of the rater.c) type of tool or system used.d) gender and age of the employee being evaluated.e) job category for which the performance is being evaluated.23732. Performance appraisals are subject to any number of errors. ______ is an errorintroduced by some type of consistent bias on the part of the rater.a) Rater errorb) Influence of likingc) Organizational politicsd) Instrument invaliditye) Team bias23833. Which of the following does a manager need to minimize in order to ensure anaccurate measure of worker performance?a) Organizational politics.b) Legal issues.c) The influence of liking.d) Rater errors and bias.e) All of the above34. You are reviewing the performance appraisal conducted by your middlemanagers. You notice that Carrie tends to give each employee the same scoreacross all dimensions of the evaluation. For example, Brian’s scores all are in theaverage range while Karl’s all tend to be in the excellent range, even though youknow that each man has done very well on some and very poorly on some of thedimensions. Brian and Karl’s evaluations exhibit:a) the impact of liking.b) a halo error.c) their awareness of organizational politics.d) the use of a group evaluation for rating individual performance.e) restriction of range error.35. You are training first-line supervisors on how to give performance appraisals. Inyour explanation of the halo error, you tell these managers that they can avoidthis mistake if they:a) are sensitive to organizational considerations when they evaluate employees.b) remain current on HRM and EEO laws.c) use the proper tool in the correct format for each evaluation.d) consider each dimension individually, and don’t make an overall assessment ofperformance and then tailor the evaluation to that assessment.239e) guard against developing personal relationships with their employees.24036. Two line managers, Cameron and Ty, are performing appraisals on theirsubordinates. As they discuss their findings, they realize that they have verysimilar views on how they rate performance. The work that Cameron rates asexcellent, Ty rates as excellent. The work that Ty rates as average, Cameron ratesas average. This similarity indicates:a) a high rate of comparability between the two raters.b) a restriction of range error.c) a low rate of comparability between the two raters.d) central tendency errors between the two raters.e) the influence of liking.37. Raters who commit severity errors generally:a) rate employees on the basis of liking.b) restrict ratings to the high portion of the appraisal scale.c) restrict ratings to the low portion of the appraisal scale.d) rate employee performance similarly in all appraisal areas.e) become victims of organizational politics.38. Many organizations train managers to enhance the quality of the performanceappraisal process. Frame-of-reference training has been found to be particularlyeffective in eliminating:a) the effect of organizational politics.b) the problems of the mismatch of the evaluation tool and the purpose of theevaluation.c) the problem of liking the employee.d) all legal issues in the performance review process.241e) most errors and the impact of personal bias.39. Frame-of-reference training for managers who appraise employee performanceuses ______ to help managers improve the accuracy and consistency of theperformance evaluations they conduct.a) role playingb) fictitious examples of performance and group discussion of the rating givenc) lecture and discussiond) examples of incorrect evaluationse) performance appraisals that managers have actually conducted and smallgroup discussion24240. Which of the following is true of rater bias?a) Training raters to eliminate errors often lowers rater bias.b) Rater bias is always conscious.c) Liking is a type of rater bias.d) Rater bias is always subconscious.e) Rater bias has little effect upon employee evaluations.41. As proven by the Segar v. Civiletti case, negative bias:a) occurs primarily in evaluations of women.b) occurs primarily in evaluations of African-Americans.c) is no longer a legal concern.d) can occur even in the federal government.e) is always unconscious bias.42. Which of the following is true about the impact of the influence of liking on theperformance appraisal process?a) It is a gender and ethnic origin problem that occurs mostly in older, whitemale supervisors and less in younger Latina supervisors.b) A supervisor’s feelings toward an employee have a greater impact on theperformance rating than does actual performance.c) It has little actual impact on an individual’s performance evaluation.d) The impact is greatest in absolute performance appraisal systems.e) All of the above are true.43. _____ is one way managers can counter or minimize the influence of liking on theperformance evaluations they conduct.a) Frame-of-reference trainingb) Experience, simply having conducted many performance evaluations,243c) Keeping a performance diary on each employee they evaluated) Developing a sensitivity to the organizational politics involved in the processe) Conducting group, rather than individual, performance evaluations24444. The first step in managing personal bias due to an emotional reaction to anemployee is to:a) keep a monthly performance log.b) go through diversity or sensitivity training.c) be aware of your personal emotional reaction so you can guard against itseffect.d) form a general impression of the employee’s performance and write theevaluation from that perspective.e) get to know employees on a personal level so you understand why theybehave the way they do.45. One way to guard against the impact of liking on a performance appraisal is to keepa performance diary for each employee. For managers, keeping performancediaries is often:a) tedious and time consuming.b) a way to vent their frustrations about individual employees.c) a guarantee against bias due to liking.d) a relatively speedy process which provides legal justification for the appraisingprocess.e) a good alternative to intervening directly when poor employee performancebecomes a concern.46. When managers use performance appraisals to communicate a message to anemployee rather than to measure actual performance, the performance appraisalis being influenced by:a) rater bias.b) the rater’s frame-of-reference.c) personal bias.d) organizational politics.245e) the influence of liking.47. Sheila believes the value of her employees’ performance depends on her agendaor goals, and not on any objective standard. Sheila’s perspective is a(n):a) rational perspective.b) absolute perspective.c) political perspective.d) relative perspective.e) trait-based perspective.24648. Which of the following is a true comparison between the rational perspective ofappraisal and the political perspective of appraisal?a) A rater’s bias is less likely to be a deciding factor in the political perspectivethan in the rational perspective.b) In both cases, workers are expected to actively influence their evaluations.c) Supervisors’ roles in the rational approach are much more active thansupervisors’ roles in the political approach.d) The goal of appraisal from the political perspective is accuracy. The goal ofappraisal from the rational perspective is accuracy.e) The goal of appraisal from the political perspective is utility. The goal ofappraisal from the rational perspective is accuracy.49. Managers using a rational perspective to appraise performance believe that:a) the goal of an appraisal is accuracy.b) appraisals are utilitarian in purpose.c) the employee is an active participant in the process.d) the focus of the process is management of performance.e) the assessment of specifics follows the overall assessment of the worker.50. One could draw which of the following conclusions from your text’s explanation ofthe political perspective in performance appraisal?a) Performance appraisals always reward specific behavior.b) Performance appraisals communicate approval and disapproval, and managean employee’s behavior.c) Performance appraisals provide a way to compare different employeesworking at the same or similar jobs.d) Performance appraisals accurately measure performance against clearstandards in order to improve functioning in the organization.247e) Performance appraisals give the employee as much power and discretion aspossible.24851. Managers who follow a rational perspective when conducting performanceappraisals:a) value the employee’s performance relative to the manager’s goals.b) seek to clearly define a worker’s performance and the criteria to evaluate thatperformance.c) disdain training on the process.d) first decide who should get the highest rating in a group setting, and thencomplete the evaluation.e) use relatively ambiguous criteria or definitions in the appraisal process.52. Your text argues that the performance appraisal process in most organizations is:a) an absolute process.b) a rational exercise.c) a political exercise.d) generally a group, rather than individual, process.e) a trait-based process.53. Automotive, Inc. (A.I.) is an automotive manufacturing company that uses self-managed teams to produce large automotive parts. When performing evaluations,A.I. needs to remember to:a) appraise both individual and team performance.b) value individual performance over team performance.c) value team performance over individual performance.d) use outcome measures when evaluating the performance of individual teammembers.e) use behavioral measures to assess overall team performance.24954. Most experts agree that in a team environment:a) individual assessment should stop.b) behavioral-based assessments are the best in most cases.c) outcome-based assessments are the only type of appraisal that should beused.d) only internal customers should make judgments regarding employeeperformance.e) both individual and team performance should be evaluated.25055. When creating criteria for evaluating individuals’ performance in a team effort, itis important that:a) the appraisal measures are outcome-related.b) only designers of the evaluation know the areas of assessment before theappraisal is performed.c) criteria measures should be developed with the input of team members.d) quantity and quality measures be the focus of individual performanceappraisal.e) performance criteria should be ambiguous so that they do not becomeconfused with team performance criteria.56. The legal requirements that any performance appraisal system must meet are setforth in:a) Executive Order 110267.b) the Civil Rights Act of 1991.c) an addendum to the Americans with Disabilities Act.d) Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.e) no single document or federal law.57. The most significant court test of discrimination in performance appraisal was:a) Griggs versus Duke Power.b) Brito versus Zia.c) Denny’s versus the U.S. government.d) the University of Massachusetts Medical Center case.e) Dominos versus the U.S. government.25158. A review of court decisions regarding performance appraisal legal issues, showsthat the courts:a) tend to be favorably influenced by the use of job analysis.b) tend to rule in favor of the employee.c) prefer clear-cut, non-discrimination cases.d) tend to refer the issue back to the EEOC or OFCCP.e) have used the 1973 Supreme Court case to widely expand the definition ofdiscrimination in performance appraisal.25259. Judges’ decisions on appraisal systems have been favorably influenced by whichof the following factors?a) The age of the rater.b) The job experience of the ratee.c) The use of verbal assessment instruction.d) The presence of rater training.e) The strength of organizational politics within the business.60. Catina is designing an assessment and performance managing program for hercompany’s HR department. To manage employee performance most effectively,Catina should:a) simply initiate formal reporting and annual rating. This is sufficient.b) mandate that performance appraisals and assessment interviews beperformed once every three years.c) prohibit managers from combining performance and salary discussion.d) stress that day-to-day interactions need to occur between manager andemployee in addition to face-to-face interviews.e) create a program that measures employee performance in terms ofproductivity per year.

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