PSY 505 Multiple Choice Questions

| August 14, 2017

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) Emil Kraepelin is best known for his contributions to the study of schizophrenia. He introduced two new diagnostic categories of disordered behavior, dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity, based on symptom differentiation, , and _ etiology; prognosis etiology; physiology prognosis; symptomology prognosis; physiology2.0bject relations theory proposes that people have a basic drive for dominating others. satisfying sexual instincts.engaging in social interactions. d, spiritual development.3. The social learning model of behavioral acquisition proposes that only behaviors in a social context are reinforced. punishment is only effective in producing learning in humans. a person does not actually have to do the behavior to learn it. humans are motivated more by primary reinforcers than secondary reinforcers. 4. Gender roles directly affect the of abnormal behaviors. expression cause severity chron icity5. Which of the following statements is TRUE? Modern psychologists believe that psychopathology is physiologically based. Abnormal behavior may be best understood using a single theoretical framework. Understanding abnormal behaviors requires an integration of models. Sociocultural factors are the best explanation for disordered behavior.6, The biopsychosocial perspective, compared with the perspectives of Freud, Jung, and Rogers,a, focuses on early developments as the diathesis. adequately explains all disorders. assumes the nature of man to be good. is broader than the other models.7. Mario has just returned from his third deployment to Iraq. For several months after returning, he is unable to sleep and has difficulty dealing with flashbacks of mortar fire over the compound in which he worked. Using a biopsychosocial model, we might explain his problems as deriving from the stress of deployment alone. a diathesis and the stress of deployment. a lack of social support. a failure in coping alone.8. A researcher is interested in studying the effect of orange juice on test performance. She will evaluate the test performance of students who drink the juice a half-hour before the test against the performance of students who receive nothing to drink before the test. The groups are equivalent in terms of demographics, intelligence, and prior college classes. In this example, the orange juice would be the _ experimental control control variable independent variable experimental variable9. One way to overcome a limitation of the case study method is to standardize the types of treatment methods used. vary the number of sessions used. generate conclusions as to the cause of a disorder in a case report. vary the levels of the independent variable.10. Select the following characteristic that IS NOT typical of a single-case research design. A baseline assessment of behavior occurs as a first step in the research design. A treatment is applied during the experimental phase and then withdrawn in the next phase. Several behaviors are changed during the experimental phases. Decreases in behavior during treatment demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.411. Which of the following IS NOT a feature of randomized controlled designs that can affect a study’s outcome? internal validity participant selection procedures assessment strategies moderator variables 12.Whereas efficacy research focuses on . , effectiveness research targets causal relationships; success rates. cost-benefit ratio; causal relationships causal relationships; cost-benefit ratios success rates; causal relationships13. One major limitation of group-based research In earlier clinical research in abnormal psychology is the over reliance on self-report measures. overuse of white college students as participants. failure to use blind conditions. Inappropriate use of statistical procedures.14. The epidemiological approach to the study of abnormal behavior is one that grew out of a need to evaluate cisorders within older cohorts. focuses on behavioral aberrations at the subgroup level. focuses on behavioral aberrations at the popu lation level. primarily focuses on the causes of behavioral disorders. 15. Dr. A and Dr. B are studying the effects of war on posttraumatic stress disorder. They both administer the same interview to the same soldiers returning from war. Which of the following psychometric test properties is being addressed in this example? Test-retest reliability I nter-rater agreement Referent reliability Normative agreement516. Selecting the best set of instruments to address the clinician’s questions depends on the goals of assessment, the properties of the I nstruments, and the referral source’s theoretical orientation. persons available to provide additional information through interviews. amount of time available for the assessment. nature of the patient’s difficulties.17. While a major benefit of the unstructured interview lies in its flexibility, a major drawback exists in the amount of time required to complete it. potential unreliability of conclusions drawn from it. resistance of the patient to answer all questions contained in it. inability of the client to articulate symptoms.18. Mr. Smith is a 67-year-old insurance salesman who is being admitted to an inpatient facility for substance abuse treatment. Using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, the clinician evaluates Mr. Smith to be functioning at a level of 45. What is the clinician communicating in assigning this score? Mr. Smith’s symptoms are transient and expectable reactions to a psychosocial stressor. Mr. Smith’s functioning is good in all areas, especially given his current condition. Mr. Smith may have serious symptoms or serious impairment in areas of overall fu nction i ng. Mr. Smith’s case does not provide enough information to evaluate his general level of functioning.19. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) assesses intelligence in which of the following age ranges?a. 7-16 years b.2 112-7 years 7-12 years 7-14 years20.ln the technique known as behavioral observation, the first step is choosing an observer who can work without bias. defining the behavior so that it can be closely observed and reliably monitored. determining whether the patient can keep reliable records of his or her own behavior. testing possible observers to see if they can be sufficiently attentive in a natural environment.6 A patient comes to a clinician with complaints of depression and anxiety. If applying the DSM-III rule of no symptom appearing In more than one category, what would likely be the diagnostic result? The rule would not affect the diagnosis. No diagnosis would be entered given the contradictory information. Comorbid diagnoses would be recorded. The International Classification of Diseases-IO would be used. Experiencing vivid and frightening images of monsters while in a state of sleep paralysis is an example of the concept of _ a hypnagogic state generalized anxiety disorder a panic attack a hypsonomic state Research indicates that the generalized subtype of social phobia is associated with a childhood history of panic attacks. shyness. neglect. abuse.24. One feature of obsessions that creates anxiety for an individual is their extreme specificity. intrusive nature. startle value. rapid onset. 2S. AII of the following EXCEPT are symptoms of PTSD. numbing an overactive sympathetic nervous system an exaggerated startle response compulsions7 Family and genetic studies tell us that compared with relatives of people without an anxiety disorder, relatives of someone diagnosed with an anxiety disorder are more likely to also have the disorder. less likely to have the disorder. not at higher risk for the disorder. less susceptible to have the disorder.27. Biofeedback training often combines monitoring of physiological responses with in vivo exposure. medication. self-reports of anxiety levels. relaxation training.28. Across all anxiety disorders, improvement rates for cognitive-behavioral therapy average abouta.53. b.70. c.98. d.20.29. Which of the following IS NOT true of people with somatoform disorders? They have a major impact on our medical systems. Sometimes, several different physicians evaluate the same patient complaint. They often “doctor-shop.” They are usually relieved to learn their psychological diagnosis.30. At this time, the etiology of somatoform disorders is poorly understood and must be approached from a perspective. physiological psychological medical interpersonal The notion that sufferers of somatoform disorders may experience bodi Iy sensations as intense, noxious, and disturbing is known as Somatic Over-sensitivity Somatic Amplification Somatic Desensitization Somatic Delusions8 44. The use of laxatives in bulimia nervosa may lead to edema, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and chronic fluid retention. severe intermittent bouts of gastritis. irreversible bowel dysfunction. permanent i rregu lar heartbeats. Yolanda has been diagnosed as having an eating disorder involving “chewing and spitting.”Given this information, what is the most likely formal diagnosis for her? Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Restrictive Eating Disorder46. Epidemiologic data on eating disorders suggest that eating disorders are more prevalent among black women than white women in the U.S. do not provide us with a clear picture of the racial and ethnic distribution of the disorders. indicate that American Indian females have a disproportionately high rate of eating disorders compared to Hispanic females. suggest that anorexia nervosa among black women is underreported. Jenna is a young adolescent and has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Most likely, her recovery and treatment wil] address issues related to independence, trust, and separation anxiety. emotional freedom. establishing romantic relationships. assertiveness. Salvador Minuchin, who investigated patterns of family dysfunction among patients with eating disorders, identified “enmeshment” as a family’s willingness to maintain the sick status of the affected member.familial attempts to cover up the family member’s illness. C. the overidentification of family rrembers with the therapist.d. Over involvement of all family members In the affairs of one member.49. The only FDA-approved drug for an eating disorder is fluoxetine, and it is prescribed for bulimia nervosa. anorexia nervosa. eating disorder not otherwise specified. bingeing.11 Female sexual arousal disorder is characterized Oy ~ ::v’~ inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response until the 07 sexual activity. According to your text, why is this disorder controversial? It may not exist independently of disorders of sexual desire or orgasmic disorder. There is very limited empirical support for it. It always accompanies cases of decreased sexual desire. It is considered to be another example of labeling normal sexual behavior as dysfunctional.5l. Which of the following sexual dysfunctions is most common among men? Premature Ejaculation Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Sexual Aversion Disorder Male Erectile Disorder52. The sexual dysfunction most often responsive to pharmacologic treatment is hormonal insufficiency. erectile dysfunction. female sexual arousal disorder. vaginismus. Mark is a college student who engages in a secret behavior. During university football games, rubbing his body against that of an unsuspecting female sexually arouses him. This contact causes him to become sexually aroused but he typically ends the incident by saying, “excuse me.” What behavior is Mark most likely to be engaging in? Exhibitionism Pedophilia Voyeurism Frotteurism54.Antiandrogen medications are used to treat some forms of paraphilia. They work by lowering the recidivism rate through selective sedation. decreasing the sexual drive by reducing testosterone levels. eliminating recidivism through chemical castration. increasing normal heterosexual behaviors by decreasing leuprolide actate.1255. Treatments for paraphilias that eliminate or decrease Inappropriate sexual arousal include social skills training and sex education. rational emotive and cognitive-behavioral therapy. satiation, covert sensitization, and olfactory aversion. couples therapy and sensate focus.56. The position that child abusers were abused as children themselves is strongly supported by numerous epidemiological studies of sex offenders. fails to consider that the vast majority of abused children do not become child abusers. does not take into account the changing societal and cultural definitions of child abuse. does not explain why child abuse is a self-perpetuating cyclical problem.57. The most commonly used illicit drug in the U.S. is amphetamine. heroin. marijuana. cocaine.58. When injected, benzedrine, dexedrine, and methamphetamine increase the release of serotonin, norepinephrine, and in the brain. gamma aminobutyric acid acetylcholine dopamine epinephrine59.Select the statement that is FALSE about cocaine. It inhibits the reabsorption of dopamine by the nerve cells. Large doses are associated with anesthetic and convulsant effects. Deaths have been reported after relatively low doses of the drug. Cocaine, although powerful in effect, is not highly addictive. Barbiturates pose a death risk because of rapid tolerance and risk of overdose. This is the result of acceleration of the heart rate. depression of the brain’s respiratory center. increase in blood pressure. damage to the nerve cells of the brain stem.13 6l. Endorphins and enkephalins have the same physiologice. 2:”;:’C: on rhe body as opioids in that they producea. heightened arousal and pain relief. b, disorientation and sedation. pain relief and sedation. euphoria and heightened arousal. 62.Which of the following inhalant substances is NOT one of the drugs most commonly used by teens? Rubbing Alcohol Cleaning Fluid Glue Paint Behavioral/psychological factors may be influential in the initiation and continued use of drugs. Many theorists propose that all drug behavior is a function of classical conditioning. negative reinforcement or punishment are not Involved in the phenomenon. substance use may be due to operant conditioning. all substance use is learned and maintained through modeling. Of the following schizophrenia subtypes, which IS characterized by only negative symptoms or previous positive symptoms that have lessened in severity or frequency? Undifferentiated Catatonic Disorganized Residual Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk for victimization because they frequently live in unsafe conditions and are required to commute longer distances to work. cognitive impairments make them easy targets. speech abnormalities make it difficult to report their crimes. suffer from medical conditions that make them dependent on caretakers.14 Researchers from a Danish study discussed In your text videotaped children ages 11 to 13 while they were eating lunch at school. The children’s behavior was rated in several categories, including sociability, involuntary movement, and general neuromotor signs. When compared with people who were diagnosed with a different psychiatric disorder, researchers found that adults who developed schizophrenia had more subtle general neuromotor abnormalities as children. frequently displayed disruptive outbursts during childhood. exhibited the same degree of sociability in childhood as the other children in the study. experienced psychotic symptoms in childhood. In the movie Bug, Agnes becomes involved with a drifter named Peter. Agnes soon learns that Peter believes he has been infected with bugs as part of a secret government experiment. As the movie progresses, the couple becomes increasingly isolated and Agnes becomes convinced that Peter has infected her as well. The couple’s behavior quickly spirals out of control and their mental states deteriorate. Assuming there was no government experiment and no such bugs, given this information, Agnes would most likely be diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. schizophreniform disorder. delusional disorder. shared psychotic disorder.Genetically speaking, if one parent is diagnosed With schizophrenia, there is a _chance of their child also developing the disorder. 0 15 50 100 Medications widely available before the 1990s that are effective in reducing only the _____ symptoms of schizophrenia are called _ negative, typical antipsychotics negative, atypical anti psychotics positive, typical anti psychotics positive, atypical anti psychotics15Research studies of specific personality disorders have mainly focused on or_____ personality disorders. narcissistic, avoidant obsessive-compulsive, schizoid dependent, paranoid borderline, antisocial In addition to traditional talk therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, and inpatient stays, step- down programs have been effective in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Step-down programs are defined as short-term hospital stays followed by long-term outpatient and community treatment. long-term hospital stays followed by short-term outpatient and community treatment. initially intense psychotherapy that gradually tapers off to occasional maintenance sessions. initially intense psychotherapy followed by a transition to community-based self-help treatment programs.78. The text states that a reading disorder most likely results from difficulties with vision and visual perception. an inability to accurately store vocabulary and grammar in memory. a diminished attention span wr ich leads to mental fatigue. diminished ability to recognize and produce sounds that when put together form words.79. Treatment for learning disorders generally occurs at home. in afterschool programs. in educational settings. at community-based outreach programs.80. The onset of autistic disorder is always before the age of 1 23 d.4U nti I the 1970s, autistic disorder was thought to be caused by , or parents whowere emotionally unresponsive to their infants. frigid parents refrigerator mothers emotionally repressed parents schizophrenogenic mothers1782. Wh ich category is NOT an attention-deficit/hyperactrvuv ~ .~c :2,’ subtype? Inattentive Hyperactivity Hypersensitive Combined 83. is a childhood disorder that is characterized by a continuous and repeatedpattern of violati ng the basic rights of others or breaki ng societal ru les. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity aisorder Oppositional defiant disorder Disruptive behavior disorder Conduct disorder In 2003, the Pediatric Research Equity Act gave the FDA the authority to mandate pharmaceutical research on children. This addressed what problem? Few chi Idren were receiving the benefits of drug treatments. Drug companies were inapprooriately testing drugs on children. Empirical data on the safety and efficacy of drugs given to children were lacking. Medication use among children was in decline because of fears about its safety. Although not necessarily the recommended first line medication for this problem, the class of drugs most frequently prescribed to treat anxiety in older adults is antidepressants. benzodiazepines. beta blockers. buspirone.86. Treatment for risky/problematic drinking in older adults is aimed at prevention and early intervention. detoxification and relapse prevention. social skills training and daily living activrties. withdrawal safety and early intervention.87. Very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis develops after the age of 65 and is caused primarily by genetic abnormalities. is characterized by more negative symptoms. symptoms appear after a person has a stroke, tumor, or other neurodegenerative change. there is evidence that as chi Idren patients experienced greater rates of maladjustment.18 Etiological factors for late-onset schizophrenia (not general psychosis) include all of the following EXCEPT hormonal changes in women. deficits in hearing and vision. neurological damage (e.g. stroke or brain tumor). genetic factors. 89. is an alteration in consciousness that typically occurs In the context of amedical illness or after ingesting a substance. Dementia Delirium Dissociation Delirium tremens90. Brain abnormalities associated with Alzheimer’s disease include excessive amounts of neurofibrillary tangles and plaques. smaller cerebral ventricles than can be accounted for by normal aging. blocked blood vessels, which may result In tissue death. damage that is confined primarily to the Inner layers of brain tissue. 9l. The interdisciplinary field that studies the relation between behavioral and biomedical science is known as neuroscience. medical psychology. behavioral medicine. holistic medicine.The coping strategy that acts to directly change the stressful situation IS called _coping. response~ocused emotion-focused solution-focused problem-focused A shared limitation of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, the Hassles Scale, and the Uplifts Scale is poor “real-life” generalization. that they rely on memory/recall of events. not factoring in individual differences. an inability to differentiate between the Impact of positive and negative life events.1994. Artificial immunities are acquired through breast milk. food. vacci nations. prior disease exposure.95. The group that currently accounts for one-fourth of newly diagnosed H IV/AI DS cases is men. women. Whites. Hispanics.96. Outpatient commitment appears to be most successful when it includes the use of psychoactive drugs. requires periodic rehospitalization for evaluation. is provided by a team of mental health specialists. is a sustained and intensive intervention.97. Unlike privacy, which is the right of an individual to give away, confidentiality exists only in legal circles. is an ethical ideal and often impractical. is held between two parties. is never broken by a therapist.98. The Tarasoff case of 1969 established the ethical mandate of duty to inform. predict danger. mai ntai n confidential ity. warn.99. The practice of psychology is bound by state laws and regulations as well as by client demands. an ethical code of behavior. medical regulations. research and clinical trials.100. Dr. Peigro is a noted neuropsychologist who nas _ s J}I’lg Alzheimer’s disease in men forover 20 years. At a recent speaking engagement, he cha::.,.S;3J :,18 prcfession for notfocusing more research on women who have Alzheimer’s and called for increased efforts in this area. He even mentioned that the requires it. Belmont Report Declaration of Helsinki Nuremberg Code Institutional Review Board

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