Private practitioners earn

| September 14, 2016

Multiple Choice Questions(Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Private practitioners earn

a. considerably more than their colleagues in academia.

b. considerably less than their colleagues in academia.

c. about the same amount as their colleagues in academia.

d. about the same amount as their colleagues in academia when salaries are
adjusted for the nine month academic year.

2. According to the text, the imbalance in the diversity of clinical psychologists

a. has changed dramatically in recent years.

b. has never been a significant issue.

c. must be addressed by quota systems in educational programs.

d. should begin to moderate as minority candidates work their way through the

3.”Evidence-Based Practices” are

a. interventions based on the best research currently available.

b. yet to be developed,however research is being planned.

c. theoretically possible,but not currently in use.

d. clinics whose programs are aimed at developing empirically supported treat-

4. Some groups that have been quick to create lists of evidence-based psycho-
toglcaI interventions are

a. insurance companies.

b. specific groups within the APA.

c. colleges,universities and other educational institutions.

d. drug companies.

5. The training program style thatis often referred to as the scientist-practioner
model is called the

a. Boulder model.

b. Vail model.

c. Aspen model.

d. Denver model.

6. One of the most striking aspects about training programs for clinical psychologists is

a. how similar they are to each other.



CI i n ical Psychology


b. how they all rely on the university setting.

c. the considerable variation that exists across training approaches ..

d. how they allvalue research equally.

7. The theorist who emphasized the quality of the client-therapist relationship
and considered it to be based on empathic listening was

a. CarlRogers.

b. Sigmund Freud.

c. Alfred Binet.

d. James Cattell.

8. The Behavioral approach led to

a. treatments for sexual disorders, substance abuse,and anxiety in the 1920’s

and 1930’s.

b. the development of experimental neuroses.

c. a move away from evaluating treatment effectiveness.

d. a belief that psychological problems were biological rather than learned.

9. The approach to treatment that emphasizes personal constructs as important
determinants of human behavior is

a. behavior therapy.

b. Gestalt therapy.

c. cognitive therapy.

d. psychodynamic therapy.

10. As behavioral therapists accepted theimportance of human cognitive pro-
cessesin determining behavior and reactions

a. behavioral and cognitive therapies became much more distinct.

b. the traditional differences between the two approaches evaporated and were
replaced by new,stronger theoretical differences.

c. cognitive and behavioral therapies began to merge and become an integrated

d. none of the above,most behavior therapists still do not acknowledge theim-
portance of cognitions.

11.The development of group therapies was facilitated by

a. a shortage of mental health personnel around the time of WWII.

b. a focus on testing which identified many people who needed therapy.

Clinical Psychology


c. the fact that only a few orientations developed group approaches.

d. theirlimitationto inpatient populations

12. Approaches to marital therapy were developed by therapists with which orientation?

a. humanistic

b. behaviorist

c. cognitive-behaviorist

d. all of the above

13. Research on the biological influences on clinical psychology

a. has had only a very minorimpact on clinical practice.

b. hasprovidedclinicians greater understanding of the foundations of behavioral
and mental processes.

c. has led to greater support for behaviorist approaches.

d. has fostered another split between psychiatry and psychology.

14. This type ofvalidity is measured by evaluating how well an assessment forecasts events.

a. Content

b. Concurrent

c. Predictive

d. Construct

15. Whenit comes to clinicaljudgment,clinicians have a tendency to

a. overestimate the validity ofclinical intuition.

b. overestimate the utility ofstatistical prediction.

c. rely mostly on new constructs and measures to inform their decisions.

d. be aware of the distortions and false beliefs that plague intuitive reasoning.

16.The usefulness of computer assessment

a. has been well established through many empirical studies.

b. has remained controversial.

c. liesin its avoidance of most significant ethical issues.

d. is relatedtoits exclusion of the clinician from the diagnostic process.



Clinical Psychology


17.The breadth of an assessment device is referred to as its _________________ ; the

depth of an assessment device is called its __________________ _

a. fidelity;bandwidth

b. bandwidth;fidelity

c. reliability;criterion validity.

d. construct validity; test-retest reliability.

18. Which of the following clinicians would be likely to consider traditional assessment procedures dehumanizing and harmful to the quality of the client-clinician relationship?

a. Harold,a clinician trained by Carl Rogers.

b. Jamil,a psychodynamically oriented therapist.

c. Harriette,a clinician who utilizes Beck’s theories and protocols.

d. none of the above

19. The most important aspect to an assessment report is that

a. it be as thorough and complete as possible, regardless of how long it be

b. it contain very detailed data and scores so others can understand all bases for
the conclusions.

c. it conveys an adequate amount of information in language that is accessible
to the consumers of the report.

d. itconveys clearly the theoretical orientation of the clinician, especially in the
conclusions and recommendations.

20. Which of the following is a type of behavioral observation that is also the cornerstone for many group, psychodynamic,and humanistic treatments?

a. thought sampling

b. contrived observation

c. role-playing

d. self -mon itori ng

21. An often-used technique for demonstrating the problems with eye-witness ac-
countsis having an accomplice enter a classroom,pretend to shoot the pro-
fessor,then leave. The class members are then asked to describe the “gun
man.” Thisis an example of

a. a virtualreality assessment.

b. a staged naturalistic event.

c. an unethicalobservational tool.

d. a role-playing test.

CI i n ical Psychology


22.Physiological measures

a. have been used less frequently since the advent of virtual reality assessments.

b. have been demonstrated to be useful in only a few instances.

c. are mainly used by individuals involved in law enforcement.

d. are being used more often as clinicians become involved in treatment of dis-
orders with clear physiological components.

23. Virtual reality assessments

a. engage clients in the process, but do not carryover to real-world situations.

b. have notbeen developed to the point where they are helpful, but progress is
being made.

c. may be better predictors of performance, in some cases, than reality-based

d. havereplaced role-playing assessments in most cases.

24.Behavioral Avoidance Tests (BAT’s)

a. are new procedures for inducing experimental neuroses.

b. are often used to assess overt anxiety.

c. have been demonstrated to be less useful that BehavioralApproach Tests.

d. were developed in the early 1900’s,but are rarely used today.

25. Which of the following accurately describes the relationship between task

complexity and interrater reliability?

a. As task complexity goes up,interrater reliability increases.

b. As task complexity decreases, interrater reliability increases.

c. As task complexity decreases, interrater reliability decreases.

d. There is no predictable relationship between task complexity andinterrater

26. Values, interest and attitude assessment instruments remain in wide use,
largely because

a. they have an exceptionally high reliability and validity.

b. they can be administered,scored and interpreted by almost anyone.

c. they can be used to stimulate personal and career exploration.

d. all of the above



CI i n ical Psychology

27. The pattern of behavioral and psychological characteristics by which a person
can be compared with other peopleis a definition of

a. intelligence.

b. aptitudes.

c. personality.

d. values.

28. The two major types of personal ity tests are:

a. self-report and observational.

b. objective and projective.

c. intrapsychic and theory-driven.

d. empirical and analytical.

29.According to Walsh and Betz (2001), the is the most useful psycho-

logical test available for assessing the degree and nature of emotional upset.

a. Rorschach

b. MMPI-2


d. Beck Depression Inventory (B DI)

30. The hypothesis that states that anindividual’s personality will influence how
he or she responds to ambiguous stimuli is called

a. the projective hypothesis.

b. the triarchic theory.

c. the psychodynamic theory of response.

d. the”big five”trait hypothesis.

31. Trainingin the administration of which test was recently excluded from the
curriculum recommendation for clinical training by the APA?


b. MMPI-2

c. Rorschach

d. Thematic Apperception Test

32. The extent to which tests can be used to specify treatment approaches or
measure treatment outcomes is referred to as

a. treatment or clinical utility.

b. externalor criterion validity.



Clinical Psychology

c. clinical efficacy.

d. psychotherapy/assessmentintegration

33.The atmosphere of the clin ical setti ng shou Id reflect

a. the needs of the client.

b. a safe and collaborative stance.

c. a sense of support for the client’s work.

d. allof the above

34.A common technique for developing insightis

a. encouragingcatharsis.

b. direct confrontation of the client’s weaknesses.

c. interpretation of a client’s behavior to foster an understanding of errors of the

d. administering self-report measurements often over the course of treatment.

35.Catharsis,or the release of pent-up emotions in a safe environment,

a. is never appropriate in an outpatient therapeutic setting.

b. should be discouraged by the therapist.

c. is likely to make the client more frightened of certain emotions.

d. can help boost the client’s emotional strength if encouraged and supported

36. The placebo effect,where positive expectations lead to an improvement in a
client’s situation,

a. should be evidence that psychotherapyinterventions really isn’t all that ben-

b. are unique to psychotherapy, and should be capitalized upon.

c. highlights the role that faith,hope and expectation for change contribute to
therapeutic change.

d. cannot be manipulated,so they are not important to the therapeutic alliance.

37. Itisimportant for a clients to experience some small successes early in the
treatment process because

a. evensmall changes help reinforce their confidence in their ability to change.

b. thenclientscan believe that the therapist is all-powerfuland therefore will
stick with therapy.



Clinical Psychology

c. if the successes are too large in the beginning, clients might get discouraged
if things slow down later in the process.

d. all of the above

38. Which of the following is not one of the “four horsemen” of professional ethics?

a. confidentiality

b. competency

c. conflict of interest

d. cari ng coherence

39. Which of the following would be a likely goal a person-centered therapist
would set for his or her client?

a. improving interpersonal communication

b. increased satisfaction with work and play

c. the ability to love unconditionally

d. none of the above, person-centered therapists don’t set goals for their clients

40. When an empathic therapist tries to understand what it would be like to be
his client, Rogers would say he is using a/an

a. internal frame of reference.

b. external frame of reference.

c. empathic congruence.

d. reflective stance.

41.The person-centered therapist’s primary responsibility is to

a. encourage the client to explore positive directions for growth.

b. provide an atmosphere in which the client is comfortable exploring thoughts
and feelings.

c. truly like the client.

d. plan homework assignments that will encourage growth activities between

42. Congruence in person-centered therapy means

a. that the therapist must say whatever is on her mind.

b. that the therapist must maintain a professional facade so as not in influence
the client’s understanding of his own feelings.

c. the therapist is genuine and reacts honestly to what the client says.

d. “going with the gut” in reacting to the material the client brings up.


Clinical Psychology


43. A primary goal of Gestalt therapy is to

a. help clients become aware of genuine feelings they have disowned.

b. recognize thefeelings and values that they have borrowed from other people.

c. both a and b.

d. neither a nor b.

44.A Gestalt therapist is likely to be __________________________________________ and _______________ _

that a person-centered therapist.

a. more directive; less confrontative

b. less confrontative;less directive

c. more directive; more confrontative

d. more empathic;less concerned about avoidance

45. Which ofthe following techniques are likely to be included in rational-emo-
tive behavior therapy?

a. role-playing

b. sensory-awareness exercises

c. desensitization

d. all of the above

46. Assessment in cognitive therapy differs from assessment in behavior therapy
in that

a. cognitive therapists are more likely to measure behaviors throughout the
course of treatment.

b. cognitive therapists are more interested in factors surrounding the client’s
automatic thought distortions.

c. it is much less complete.

d. cognitive therapists believe that everyone is capable of benefiting from treat-
ment so they pay little attention to client factors that relate to the ability to
engagein the necessary attitude.

47. The process whereby a therapist and client engage in active examination of
the client’s cognitive distortions is called

a. collaborative empiricism.

b. systematic desensitization.

c. psychoeducation.

d. a therapeutic alliance.



CI i n ical Psychology

48. Itis especially important for cognitive therapists to educate and “socialize”
their clients into treatment because

a. these clients are usually less prepared for the therapeutic process.

b. the techniques are so complicated that it takes a great deal of time to learn

c. the therapist may seem accusatory or unsupportive as he or she engages the
clientin various therapeutic interventions.

d. they must be sure to not bring up unconscious material.

49. The techniquein which clients are asked a series of questions aimed at ex-
posing their distorted beliefs and assumptions is called

a. multiphasic questioning.

b. Socratic questioning.

c. clarification questioning.

d. Ellis’ rational-emotive questioning.

50. Individuals tend to pay much more attention to information that supports
their beliefs than that which refutesit.This is called the

a. collaborative bias.

b. confirmation bias.

c. tendency to catastrophize.

d. none of the above

51. Which of the following would NOT be considered an integrative technique or
Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) approach?

a. use of over-the-counter herbs and food supplements

b. chiropractic and massage therapy

c. hypnosis

d. applied kinesiology and biofeedback

52. Many CAM therapies remain unevaluated,

a. but others have been determined to be unhelpful,and even possibly harmful.

b. but those such as”rebirthing” and”reparenting” therapy have been deemed
quite helpful.

c. so they are never used by competent clinicians.

d. but even empirically-oriented psychotherapists embrace them and readily
integrate theminto their practices.


Clinical Psychology


53. Research indicates that spirituality

a. should not be addressed in clinical psychology, since most clinicians are not
theologians and thereis no reason be believe it is important.

b. is not a relevant issue for most clients, and rarely comes up in therapy.

c. regularly emerges as a resilience or protective factor or asset in the risk and
resilience literature.

d. is not related to quality of lifeissues,stress reduction or increased well-be-

54. Mindfulness

a. is described as”intentionally bringing one’s attention to the internal and

b. has beenintegrated into cognitive-behavioral approaches.

c. appears to be a promising approach for some types of clients with certain
types of problems.

d. allof the above

55.Research on using the Internet for psychotherapy indicates that

a. the Internet can be quite effectivein delivering certain treatments.

b. there is strong evidence that Internet interventions add advantages to clinic-
administered treatments, especially for severe disorders such as schizophre-

c. Internetinterventions are clearly better than clinic-administered treatments,
especiallyfor children.

d. clinicians are opposed to the process because they are rarelyinvolvedin the

56.According to thetext, internetinterventions

a. have been determined to be too great an ethical risk to continue.

b. will soon replace face-to-face interventions because of their cost-effective-

c. will likely continue to grow, in spite of concerns about their ethical applica-

d. have been deemed to not be useful and their use is being discontinued.

57. Which of the followingis NOT one of the models of psychotherapy integration
describedin the chapter?

a. theoreticalintegration

b. common factors

c. internetintegration

d. technicalintegration



CI i n ical Psychology


58. Which is NOT on of the criteria of the Task Force classifications?

a. Well-established/ efficacious and specific

b. Promising

c. Not efficacious/diluted results

d. Probably efficacious/ possibly efficacious

59. Which of the following statements about clinicians’ use of outcome research
findings in their practices is true?

a. Most clinicians are fully aware of research findings and wholeheartedly em-
brace them in their practices.

b. Most clinicians are not especially well-informed about these findings.

c. Clinicians tend to overestimate the valuable of evidence-based practices when
they become aware of them.

d. Clinicians tend to underestimate their own skills and techniques once they
become aware of research findings.

60. Which of the following is NOT a therapist characteristic associated with de-
monstrable effectiveness?

a. strong therapeutic alliance

b. strict adherence to a theoretical approach

c. higher levels of empathy

d. strong goal consensus and collaboration with the client

6l.Which of the following therapist factors probably increase effectiveness?

a. positive regard towards the client

b. appropriate self-disclosure

c. high quality of relational interpretations

d. all of the above

62. Research on the therapeutic alliance indicates that

a. a better therapeutic alliance is associated with better treatment outcomes.

b. there may be an effect between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes.

c. there is no demonstrable relationship between therapeutic alliance and treat-
ment outcomes.

d. there are only a few studies that have addressed this issue adequately.


Clinical Psychology

63.Betteroutcomes for group therapy members are achieved when

a. group members clearly understand how the group is being run and what is

expected of them.

b. the group is cohesive and provides accurate feedback to members.

c. the group encourages interpersonal learning and supportive interactions.

d. allof the above


a. is one of the most common childhood disorders.

b. affects more girls than boys.

c. usually appears after the third grade when school work becomes more de-

d. is almost always outgrownin adulthood.

65.Conduct disorder (CD)

a. is more severe thanOppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD).

b. is often preceded by ODD.

c. isreferred to in the OSM as a disruptive behavior disorder.

d. all of the above

66.Prevalence of ODDinchildren range from _______________ _

a. 2to 10

b. 4to12

c. 4to 16

d. 2to 16

67.Major depressive disorder

a. is almost never seenin childrenor adolescents.

b. is morecommonin male adolescents than female adolescents.

c. may present different symptom patterns based on the child’s developmental

d. havereplaced role-playing assessments in most cases.

68. The OSM-IV Anxiety disorders include all of the following except:

a. separation anxiety disorder.

b. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

c. post traumatic stress disorder.

d. test anxiety disorder.



Clinical Psychology


69.Autisticdisorders arecharacterized by difficulties in

a. language development.

b. social functioning.

c. both a and b

d. neither a nor b

70. Phantompain

a. is easily treatable through cognitive-behavioral interventions.

b. refers to pain thatcomes and goes mysteriously.

c. isdifficultto treat because its origins and processes are unknown,

d. is nolonger considered an area for health psychologists to concern
themselves with.

7l.Anticipatory nausea

a. is an example of a classically conditioned response.

b. can cause patients to forego treatments that could be lifesaving.

c. is poorly controlled by standard anti-nausea medications.

d. all of the above.

72. Several types of psychotherapeutic interventions have been studied for
treati ng the depression that often accompan ies H IV/AI OS diagnosis.
Which ones were found to be the most helpful?

a. behavioral and cognitive-behavioral

b. behavioral and interpersonal therapies

c. interpersonal therapy and supportive therapy and antidepressant medi-

d. behavior therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy plus antidepressant

73.The transtheoretical model in health psychology

a. addresses cognitive factorsinvolvedin people’s decision to change

health-related behaviors.

b. assesses a client’s readiness and ability to inhibit certain behaviors.

c. assesses a client’s ability to perform certain behaviors.

d. all of the above.

CI i n ical Psychology


74. Recommending that a depressed client increase his or her activity leveland
get regular exercise is an example of

a. animproper use oftherapeutic resources.

b. an evidence-basedintervention that falls outside the traditionally defined
rolesof the psychotherapist.

c. anold-fashioned approach thatis not longer considered valid.

d. anintervention thatis based in folk-wisdom.

75. The theory that describes several perceptual sets patients maintain that af-
fect treatment compliance or adherence is called

a. the health belief model.

b. the healthcompliance model.

c. the generaladaptationmodel.

d. a contingency contract.

76. An emotionalconcomitant to left hemisphere brain damage is often

a. frustration.

b. euphoria.

c. schizophrenia.

d. depression.

77. Among the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, consistent with damage to
the prefrontal cortex,are

a. nastiness and bitterness.

b. many behaviors than cannot be seen, only inferred.

c. lack of energy and spontaneity.

d. symptoms that go away over time without treatment.

78. Research on learning disabilitiesindicates that many language-based disabili-

a. are related to dysfunctions in the left-hemisphere.

b. correlate with microstructural variations in certain left-hemisphere pathways.

c. may be related to differing structuresin the left-hemisphere.

d. all of the above



CI i n ical Psychology

79. Ectopias are

a. the outer layers of brain regions.

b. tests for learning disabilities.

c. misplaced brain cells .:

d. implicated in schizophrenia.

80. A child who scores very high on the verbal subscales of the WISC-IV but dis-
plays poor spatial abilities and visual motor skills may be diagnosed as having

a. depression.

b. schizophrenia.

c. a nonverbal learning disability.

d. dyslexia.

8l.Because the symptoms can be subtle, a child with nonverbal learning dis-
abi lities may be labeled

a. as having emotional problems.

b. as being behaviorally disturbed.

c. uncooperative.

d. all of the above

82. Which of the following developments has led to an increasing need for good

a. the development and refinement of neuroimaging techniques.

b. the increased understanding of the neurological correlates of many disorders.

c. medical advances that enable individuals to live long after strokes and other
brain trauma and therefore to need rehabilitation.

d. all of the above

83. Criminal profiling remains somewhat controversial because

a. the research is gathered from prisoners, and therefore is not reliable.

b. they are racially biased.

c. inaccurate profiles are quite common.

d. none of the above

84. Under which of the following cases might a “parental fitness” evaluation be
requested to determine if the parental relationship should be terminated?

a. A child has been found to be obese.



Clinical Psychology

b. Parents have had a hard time staying employed and the child comes to school

c. Parents remain addicted to drugs and have left the child alone for extended
periods of time,even after attempts have been made to address this issue.

d. A parent fails to make timely child support payments.

85.The legal definitionof parenting fitness

a. is determined on a case by case basis by expert testimony.

b. is determined by each state.

c. is consistent across states.

d. can be found in the DSMIV-TR.

86. Whatis a reasoncustody mediation might be undertaken?

a. Protracted custody battles can leave families emotionally and financially chal-

b. Mediation helps the parties emotionally accept the situation.

c. Mediation can help settle disputes and help establish a stable co-parenting

d. all of the above

87. What relatively new role for clinicians has emerged as more couples seek and
obtain joint custody of children after divorces?

a. parenting coordinator

b. parenti ngcaseworker

c. family therapist

d. none of the above,there is little role for clinicians once the divorce is final.

88.Federal Rule of Evidence 702 concerns

a. the reliability of scientific expert testimony.

b. the applicabilityof the testimony to the facts of the case.

c. the qualifications of the expert whois testifying.

d. all of the above

89. What term did the medical profession use to attempt to block psychologists’
reimbursement for psychological services?

a. psychoanalysis



Clinical Psychology

b. psychotherapy

c. medical psychotherapy

d. psychopharmacology

90.The”medical offset”refers to

a. a tendency for medical professionals to avoid referring patients for psychologi-

cal services.

b. medical costs being lower for individuals who receive mental health services.

c. the higher costsinvolved to insurers who cover mental health treatment.

d. all of the above

91.Managed care

a. has embraced and fostered relationships with psychologists.

b. has always acknowledged the “medical offset.”

c. has had a major impact on psychological practice.

d. supports fee-for-service health care.

92.One of the complaints psychologists often have about utilization review is that

a. individuals without credentials may be making treatment decisions.

b. client confidentiality is threatened by the information sought by the insurance

c. cl ients may not be receivi ng adeq uate treatment in the interest of cost -con-

d. all of the above

93. A factor that may be supporting change in some managed care philosophies

a. fewer psychologists willing to work under utilization review.

b. theincreasing number of therapies that have been strongly supported byem-
pirical evidence as being effective.

c. the rise in the self-help movement.

d. all of the above

94. When it comes to gaining prescription privileges

a. psychologists are remarkably united in their support.

b. there is a great deal of controversy within the field of psychology.

c. the medical profession is eager to welcome psychologists aboard.

d. it is inevitable that psychologists will all be required to train and apply for
them soon.



Clinical Psychology

95. A reasonthat GRE scores areimportant to admission committees is that

a. ithas predictive validity for success in graduate school.

b. it represents data that can directly be compared across candidates.

c. itis considered a valid indicator of a student’s potential for success.

d. all of the above

96. The GRE scores

a. maynot be as validin predicting the success of minority or disadvantaged

b. are required for all graduate-level programsin clinicalpsychology.

c. areroutinelyreported by all graduate programs so good data is available on
the average scores forstudents accepted into graduate programs.

d. tend to be higher for PsyO program applicants than for PhO program appli-

97. While overallGPA is important to admission committees,some committees
wiIIfocus on the

a. grades a student attained in psychology courses.

b. patterns of grades as a student progressed through college.

c. grades a student attained in statistics or research design courses.

d. all of the above

98. Inseeking letters ofrecommendation, it is helpful for a student to ask

a. senators,governors,or religious leaders.

b. familyfriends who workin the field.

c. professors who have had the student in a class.

d. professors who are familiar with the student’s research and leadership skills.

99. By organizing application materials before giving them to theindividual who
is going to writeletters of reference,a student

a. might come across as somewhat compulsive.

b. can minimize errors that might occur.

c. could aggravate the person doing the recommending.

d. allof the above



Clinical Psychology


100. A personal statement should help the admissions committee understand
that the applicant is

a. intellectually curious and highly motivated.

b. hard-working and conscientious.

c. interested in specific areas of research.

d. all of the above

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