Policy and Procedures

| June 6, 2016

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Background

Assume it is currently June 1, 2015.

You are working for the temporary accounting employment agency known as Tempuacc. Today you have been asked to work at The Adrenaline Hut, a small extreme sports store that operates in inner city Denver and is owned by Lorenzo Appleton. Your task here is to complete the accounting cycle for The Adrenaline Hut for the month of June 2015. To assist you in this task, Lorenzo tells you to read the company’s accounting policies and procedures. Note that you will be required to follow these policies and procedures when completing the accounts for The Adrenaline Hut.

Accounting policies

a.Business operations: The Adrenaline Hut is set up as a private non-listed corporation based in Denver with Lorenzo Appleton as the sole stockholder. The business derives its main source of revenue from retail sales of sporting goods.

To assist in managing the business, The Adrenaline Hut rents a small office space. Note that the business is required to pay for the rent for this premises in advance.

The electricity and water expenses incurred during the month relate to the running of the office. Additional expenses include an insurance policy to protect the equipment in the office in the event of theft or fire.

All costs associated with the office are classified as general and administrative expenses.

Lorenzo is the only full-time employee and his role is to handle all administrative tasks. Lorenzo’s salary is paid once at the end of each month. All other employees are sales staff who are employed on a part-time basis. The sales staff receive their wages on a weekly basis.

b.Accounting cycle: The business adopts a monthly accounting cycle.

c.Purchases: Purchases are recorded when the business receives the goods. All items purchased are received on the same day as recorded in the transaction list, except for purchase orders which are received at a later date. Note that the business uses the gross method of recording purchases and receives trade discounts from some suppliers.

d.Revenue recognition: The business recognizes revenue when goods sold are delivered to customers. All items sold are delivered on the same day as recorded in the transaction list except for sales orders, which are delivered at a later date as agreed with the customer. Note that the business uses the gross method of recording sales and sometimes grants trade discounts to customers. Past experience has shown that offering early payment discounts did not increase the likelihood of accounts receivable being paid promptly. Therefore, discounts for early payment of accounts are not normally offered to credit customers except in exceptional circumstances.

e.Sales returns: So that the business can easily track the level of sales returns in relation to overall sales, all sales returns are recorded using a contra revenue account (Sales Returns and Allowances) rather than being recorded directly in the Sales Revenue account.

f.Sales tax: Lorenzo has advised you to ignore the effect of the sales tax. [ASIDE: This is an assumption to make the practice set easier for you to complete. In the real world, sales tax cannot be ignored.]

g.Cash: The business accepts cash and checks and uses checks to pay for the majority of its expenses. On the day checks are received, Lorenzo deposits them at the bank. It may take a number of days for the checks to be cleared by the bank. The business holds its checking account with ZNZ Bank.

h.Inventories: The business uses the perpetual inventory system and applies the FIFO method to allocate costs to inventory and cost of goods sold. Note that the business maintains a set of inventory cards with multiple pairs of lines to keep track of changes in inventory. In each inventory card under the Balance column, items with different unit costs are listed in separate lines with the items purchased earlier listed first in the pair of lines provided.

i.Prepayments: The business has a policy of recording prepayments, including office supplies, as assets. At the end of the month, adjustments are made to the relevant accounts to recognize the expense during the accounting period.

j.Property, plant and equipment: Property, plant and equipment items are depreciated over their estimated useful life using the straight line method to calculate the depreciation charge. Depreciation is allocated on a monthly basis and the monthly depreciation charge is calculated as the yearly depreciation expense divided by the number of months in a year.

k.Long term liabilities: The business obtained an interest only loan from MRMC Bank on June 1, 2015 at a simple interest rate of 6% per year. The first interest payment is due at the end of August 2015 and the principal on the loan is due on June 1, 2020.

Accounting procedures

The Adrenaline Hut adopts a manual accounting system and uses the general journal and special journals for the recording of individual transactions. Lorenzo Appleton has tailored the design of those journals to meet the specific needs of the business so the format of those journals may be slightly different to those you have seen before. However, he advises you that the general principles of how to use special journals are followed in his business.

The table below shows the journals used by the business and the types of transactions that can be recorded in each of these journals:

Journal

Code

Transaction type

General journal

GJ

All transactions that are not able to be recorded in the special journals below.

Sales journal

SJ

Credit sales of inventory

Purchases journal

PJ

Credit purchases of inventory

Cash receipts journal

CRJ

Cash inflows to the business

Cash payments journal

CPJ

Cash outflows from the business

To summarize the effects of transactions recorded in those journals, Lorenzo maintains the general ledger and the following ledgers:

§ accounts receivable subsidiary ledger,

§ accounts payable subsidiary ledger, and

§ inventory cards.

Lorenzo then indicates that he is aware other businesses using a manual accounting system may post transactions from journals to ledgers at different times (i.e. daily or monthly). Although the posting procedures used in his business may be different to what you have seen before, he asks that you specifically follow his company’s accounting procedures.

The information below explains when transactions are required to be posted from the journals to the appropriate ledger accounts and inventory cards:

Posting of entries recorded in the general journal

All transactions that are entered in the general journal are posted on a daily basis. Note that if a transaction recorded in the general journal involves both a control account and a subsidiary ledger account, that journal entry will need to be posted to both ledgers.

Posting of entries recorded in the special journals

When a transaction is recorded in a special journal, part of the journal entry may need to be posted daily and part of that entry is to be posted monthly.

a.Daily:

§ If a transaction affects a subsidiary ledger account, then the entry that involves a subsidiary ledger account is to be posted to that subsidiary ledger on a daily basis. However, the same amount posted to the subsidiary ledger account is not posted to the related control ledger account immediately. This procedure allows the business to keep track of supplier and customer balances on a daily basis.

§ In the cash receipts journal or the cash payments journal, if a transaction is recorded in the Other Accounts column, then the amount recorded in the Other Accounts column is to be posted to the appropriate general ledger account daily.

§ If a transaction results in a change in the number of inventory items on hand, then the entry that affects inventory is to be posted to the appropriate inventory card on a daily basis. In this way, the business is able to track the balance of inventory on hand.

b.Monthly:

§ At the end of the month, the totals of each column in the special journals are manually calculated. Those totals, with the exception of the totals of the Other Accounts columns in the cash journals, are posted to the appropriate general ledger accounts at the end of the month.

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