# Observed Blood Group – Using the observed numbers of individuals

April 14, 2018

#1ObservedBlood GroupMMMNNNTotalNumber307848003490Genotypic Frequency5Allele FrequencyMNUsing the observed numbers of individuals above with a particular blood group, calculategenotypic and allelic frequencies for the population (do not assume in H-W equilibrium).Then, determine if the genotypic frequencies observed are equal to the expectedequilibrium frequencies calculated according the Hardy – Weinberg law.Is the population in H-W equilibrium? Yes or No Why did you make your conclusion?(Modified from Ayala 1983)Blood GroupMMMNNNExpected Genotypic Frequency#2You have a population that, before selection, consists of 0.3 AA individuals, 0.5 Aaindividuals, and 0.2 aa individuals. The absolute fitnesses associated with each of thesethree genotypes are 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0, respectively. What is the frequency of A, beforeselection and following one round of selection.#3A plant population consists of two flower morphs, white and red, controlled by a singlegene with two alleles. The white morph represents the recessive homozygote. The redmorph consists of some combination of heterozygotes and dominant homozygotes.Assume that 20% of the population has red flowers. What are the frequencies of all threegenotypes assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?#4In the peppered moth (Biston betularia), let us assume that black individuals arehomozygous for the A allele, grey moths are heterozygous, and white moths arehomozygous for the a allele. Suppose that in a sample of 400 moths from one locality(before selection), 68 are black, 192 are grey, and 140 are white.a. What are the genotype frequencies?b. What are the allele frequencies of A and a?c. Is the population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?Let us now assume that the population underwent a major bought of selection. After thisselection event the population consisted of 28 black, 148 grey, and 13 white moths.d. What are the absolute fitnesses?e. What is the population mean fitness?f. What are the relative fitnesses?g. What are the genotype frequencies after selection?h. What are the allele frequencies after selection?i. What is the change in the frequency of the recessive allele?j. What type of selection occurred?#5a On an island recently separated from the mainland there exists a population of 10,000frogs. 25 of these frogs carry a recessive albino condition, the rest of the frogs are green.Assuming Hardy-Weinberg, what are the genotype and allele frequencies for thispopulation?#5b A solar flare causes 10% of the population to die from sunburn. Of the 10% who died, 10individuals were albino and the rest were split evenly between heterozygous (Gg) anddominant (GG) individuals. What are the new genotype and allele frequencies for thepopulation? What are the absolute, average, and relative fitnesses for this population aswell?#5c A misguided friend discovers this population and is alarmed by the rarity of the albinofrogs. In and attempt to prevent their extinction he facilitates the immigration of frogsfrom the mainland population at a rate of 0.05. The mainland population consists of20,000 individuals: 15,000 albino, 4,000 heterozygous, and 1,000 dominant individuals.What is the change in the albino allele frequency due to migration?

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