Law hw questions

| August 31, 2016

Question
Part 3
QUESTION 1
Pursuant to traditional philosophical analysis which of the following statements
is/are true?
a. Morals and morality are different from ethics.
b. Intrinsic values are different from instrumental values.
c. Cultural relativism is different from ethical relativism.
d. All of the above.
0.5 points

Question 2
Which of the following is not accurate?
a. One benefit to being a sincere ethical emotist is that one is morally infallible.

b. One convenience to being an ethical emotist is that one can change one’s
mind about a moral issue simply by expressing a different feeling about an
action.
c. Morality is a societal­based phenomena according to the doctrine of ethical
relativism.
d.

Cultural relativism is a prescriptive ethical theory that sets forth moral norms.

Question 3
All of the following are ethical theories EXCEPT:
a. Utilitarianism
b. Kant’s Categorical Imperative
c. SEC Rule 10b(5)

d. Ethical Egoism

Question 4
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0.5 points

One advantage of the Utilitarian ethical principle is that:
a. It is very egalitarian as all people and groups affected are counted.
b. It has a broad stakeholder component that is similar to modern business
constituent group analysis.
c. It conforms to the way most people think about acting by focusing on the
consequences of an action.
d. All are advantages.

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0.5 points

Question 5
Which ethical theory would be described as the most “democratic” one?
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a. Locke’s Natural Rights theory
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b. Rousseau’s Social Contract theory

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c. Kant’s Categorical Imperative

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d. Machiavelli’s The Prince

Question 6
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement?
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a. One advantage to a Natural Rights theory of ethics is that it can
provide very specific and precise moral rules to guide conduct.

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b. One problem with Rousseau’s Social Contract theory of ethics
is that it is very difficult to determine with any exactitude what
constitutes the General Will of the people.
c. According to Machiavelli, Fate or Fortune rules a good part of
a person’s actions, and thus a shrewd and smart person should be
prepared to adapt one’s actions to circumstances imposed by
Fate.
d. “Soft” Determinism implies that one can make a true choice
between good and bad moral alternatives.
0.5 points

Question 7
Eve, an employee of First Federal Bank, takes an outcome­based or
consequences or stakeholder approach to ethics. Eve likely believes that she
must
a. achieve the greatest good for the most people.
b. avoid unethical behavior regardless of the consequences.
c. conform to society’s standards.
d. place her employer’s interest first.
0.5 points

Question 8
Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about the Utilitarian
ethical theory?

a. It determines the moral worth of an action based on what a society
believes is morally right
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b. It may allow the personal interests of individuals to be sacrificed in that
the collective good be attained

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c. It is usually regarded as a consequentialist ethical theory

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d. It determines the moral worth of an action by whether the action achieves
the greatest overall balance of satisfaction over dissatisfaction.

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QUESTION 9

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Which statement is FALSE about Ethical Egoism?

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a. The doctrine contains an arbitrating principle to justly decide cases of conflict
wherein two egos collide in wanting the same thing.

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b. As a general rule, an ethical egoist would advise that it is better to treat people
well and with respect than to abuse and belittle them.

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c. As a general rule, an ethical egoist would advise that one should be prepared to
undergo some short­term pain and sacrifice in order to obtain greater long­term
gain.

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d. Machiavellian “ethics” is an egoistic ethics for the person with a big ego and
“princely” ambitions.

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0.5 points

Question 10
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Someone who believes that moral duties are based on universal rules, and
that the actor must abide by the same rules being applied to others, believes
in which moral theory?
a. Ethical Relativism
b. Utilitarianism
c. Ethical egoism
d. Kantian ethics

Part 4

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QUESTION 1
Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about the Utilitarian
ethical theory?
a. It determines the moral worth of an action based on what a society
believes is morally right
b. It may allow the personal interests of individuals to be sacrificed in that
the collective good be attained
c. It is usually regarded as a consequentialist ethical theory
d. It determines the moral worth of an action by whether the action achieves
the greatest overall balance of satisfaction over dissatisfaction.

Question 2
The Sophists, who were known as respected teachers in ancient Greece,
became vilified through time, and now have the negative words “sophist”
and “sophistry” associated with them, because:
a. They emphasized that there was no universal truth in morality, ethics, justice,
and religion.
b. They placed an emphasis on debate, rhetorical skills, and argumentation
regardless of any underlying truth.
c. They were known as the first business consultants and emphasized making
money and securing power by whatever means necessary, and then getting good
publicity for being socially responsible.
d. All of the above.

Question 3
Utilitarianism can best be characterized by:
a. The consultation of an outside source, such as a person or a book, for
guidance.
b. The belief that a person must decide what course of action is proper
based on that person’s own set of beliefs and feelings.
c. Determining which course of action produces the greatest amount of
good for society.
d. A set of universal rules based on reasoning that must be applied in all
situations and characterized by reversibility.

Question 4
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0.5 points

A spray paint company discovers that its products are being misused by
children and young people, who get “high” sniffing the fumes. There are no
warning labels on the spray paint cans. The company would be best deemed
to have what type of obligation and duty to take steps to protect children
and young people?
a. An ethical obligation but not a legal duty

b. A legal obligation but not an ethical obligation
c. Both an ethical obligation and a legal duty

d. Neither an ethical obligation nor a legal duty.
0.5 points

Question 5
Which of the following statements is a correct one?
a. Poor taste ads are generally illegal.

b. Suggestive ads are always immoral.
c. Deceptive ads are generally illegal and immoral.
d. None of the above.
0.5 points

Question 6
Whistleblowing may be morally required when:
a. A code of ethics requires it.
b. Kantian ethics demands it as the morally right thing to do.
c. The DeGeroge whistleblowing ethics principle applies.
d. All of the above.

Question 7

EarthLast, Inc. is a heavy polluter. Which of the following would be a
philosophical ethical dilemma for Mr. Bill, a manager at EarthLast?
a. Whether or not the Christian Bible allows for pollution
b. Whether or not federal or state law allows for pollution
c. Whether or not pollution is permissible under Mr. Bill’s moral beliefs of
right or wrong
d. None of the above

Question 8
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0.5 points

Fine Clothes Company buys clothing assembled by Gamma, Ltd, a foreign
firm that employs young children for long hours and low pay. Gamma’s

nation does not enforce its child labor laws. Human International Politics
(HIP), a political activist organization, discovers Fine Clothes’ connection
to Gamma and plans to reveal this information. Before HIP does so,
however, Fine Clothes publicly releases the information itself, states that it
is “shocked and disappointed” by Gamma, and announces that it is severing
its relationship with Gamma. Fine Clothes adroitly publicizes its action in
its advertising, and the company’s sales and profits increase, apparently as a
direct result. From an ethical perspective, Fine’s conduct can best be
characterized as
a. Legal, moral, and socially responsible
b. Ethically egoistic
c. Immoral since most advertisers usually misrepresent things
d. In conformity with Kantian ethics.

Question 9

Applying Aristotle’s Doctrine of the Mean to corporate social
responsibility, one can best say that:
a. A company should give generously to local charities or else it will get a
reputation in the community for being mean.
b. A company need not get involved in civic and community affairs and give to
charities unless legally obligated to do so.
c. A company should focus on profit first but also do “good deeds” in the
community but in a prudent manner.
d. A company should require its employees to donate their own money and time
to charities but make sure that the company gains the good reputation from their
efforts.

Question 10

Mandatory, random, observed drug testing by an employer ethically could
be deemed:
a. Moral pursuant to Ethical Egoism for the employer if it conducts the testing in a
careful and proper manner and as a result reduces accidents, lost time at work, and
health care costs.

b. Moral pursuant to Utilitarianism if the drug testing reduces illegal drug use in
society for the betterment of the people as a whole even though some people may
feel their rights to privacy have been or may be infringed upon.
c. Immoral pursuant to Kantian ethics if some people feel that mandatory, random,
observed drug testing is a disrespectful and demeaning act and an invasion of
their privacy.
d. All of the above.

Part 5

Question 1
When Ruby, the president of Interrelated Systems Corporation, is
deciding what business action to take, an initial question is, like it is for most
major companies today, whether the action
a. Ethical
b. Legal

c. Socially responsible
d. Likely to result in executive bonuses.

Question 2

0.5 points

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Basing one’s behavior on the adage, “Do unto others as you would have them
do unto you,” is part of Kantian ethics.
b. An ethical theory that says each person is presumed to have entered into an
agreement with all others in society to obey moral rules that are necessary for
people to live in peace and harmony is called Social Contract ethics.
c. A doctrine that says that a corporation should consider its presence in the
community and society and the effects its actions have on persons or groups other
than the shareholders is called Corporate Social Responsibility.

d. A theory of social responsibility that says that business must solve global
problems such as poverty and disease is called Legal Nonfeasance.

Question 3
Which is a FALSE statement about social responsibility?
a. Social responsibility is a “real­world” concern for modern business managers; it
is not merely an “academic” issue.
b. Social responsibility and ethical egoism are mutually exclusive and
contradictory values.
c. A challenge for business today is to ascertain the exact nature and proper
degree of social responsibility.
d. Social responsibility activities and contributions are mandated legally for large
multinational global corporations by the World Bank and the United Nations.

Question 4
Commercial Products Company (CPC) markets its products nationwide.
When making a decision, CPC should, in order to be a socially responsible
firm, take into account the needs of
a. Consumers and employees
b. Owners and shareholders
c. Society and community
d. All of the above

Question 5
Someone who argues that General Motors owes an obligation to take into

account the interests of the community where it has its Michigan factories
in decisions involving the plant is arguing most directly for which theory to
be applied to business?
a. Machiavellian ethics
b. Corporate social responsibility
c. Maximizing profits
d. Legal misfeasance

Question 6
A conservative interpretation and definition of corporate “social
responsibility” would typically reflect the view that:
a. Corporate social responsibility should be mandated and closely regulated by
global organizations, such as the United Nations.
b. There is insufficient government regulation in the U.S. in place to deal with
corporate socially responsible decision­making.
c. Social responsibility decisions in business should be decided according to
philosophical Natural Law and Natural rights ethical principles.
d. It could in the long­term, self­interest of business to “get involved” in the
community in a prudent manner.

Part 6

Question 1
Charlotte is the CEO of a large successful company. She is considering
how and to what extent her company should be involved in the

communities where it has major facilities. How would you best advise her
today?
a. Do nothing since a company cannot be sued for being socially non­responsive
or for that matter for being socially irresponsible.
b. Be very altruistic to the point of being saintly in helping out in the local
communities.
c. Be socially responsible in a prudent, smart, shrewd, and strategic sense.
d. Be a moral hero in the community by “helping to it hurts.”
0.5 points

Question 2
Which of the following are among the assertions typically made by
“socially responsible” advocates of the modern corporation’s activities?
a. Corporations should not merely obey the law but rather should seek and
observe social responsibility standards higher than the law since at times the law
is “silent” or is not enforced.
b. Corporate profit­seeking at times involves unacceptable social costs.
c. Forces in a free market are at times inadequate to prevent many of the social
costs stemming from corporate profit­seeking.
d. All of the above.
0.5 points

Question 3
Which statement is correct regarding the application of the term “social
responsibility” to business?
a. Social responsibility by business in the form of civic and charitable
contributions to the local community usually is legally required when a local
government is suffering a budget deficit.
b. Today’s business executives and managers are well advised to pay attention on
the changing perceptions in society as to what constitutes socially responsible
behavior by business.
c. Social responsibility is the notion that every person should act only on those

principles that he or she as a rational actor would prescribe as moral law.
d. Social responsibility means that the form of an action is primary and the
consequences of an action are secondary or even irrelevant in determining the
morality of the action.

Question 4

0.5 points

David, the human resources director for Eagle Manufacturing Company,
attempts to comply with the law in dealing with applicants and employees.
One of the major challenges that David confronts is that the legality of an
action is
a. Absolute and unchanging
b. Based on social responsibility notions
c. Based on ethical standards
d. Not always clear.

Part 7

Question 1
Susan Sharpe, an amateur but very smart stock trader, by means of
properly analyzing public sources of information and using her native
intelligence and keen deductive powers correctly reasons that Big Oil
Company has discovered oil in its holdings off Vietnam. In fact, the
company has discovered oil, a lot of oil, but that information is kept highly
confidential in the company. Susan buys shares of stock in Big Oil based on
her deductions alone. She is correct in her deductions and as a result makes a
great deal of money when the oil discovery is announced by Big Oil and its
stock prices soar. Susan can best be described as acting:
a. Illegally since she is a misappropriator of insider information who wrongfully
purchased stock based on the inside information.
b. Illegally since the level­playing­field theory is the prevailing legal theory of insider
trading and obviously Susan had more and better information than the people she

purchased the stock from.
c. Legally since she is a very smart, and perhaps a bit lucky, trader.
d. Immorally pursuant to Machiavellian ethics since she took advantage of someone who
was ignorant and thus she committed a traditional bad act.
0.5 points

Question 2
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Which of the following cause problems in determining whether an action is
legal?
a. A large number of ethical theories
b. Too general definitions of “corporate social responsibility”
c. A lack of lawyers
d. None of the above

Question 3

C.E.O. Carlos believes his corporation can be influential and should be
responsible for helping to solve many social problems. Carlos believes his
corporation should address problems above and beyond those actually
caused by the corporation. Which of the following theories does Carlos
most likely subscribe to:
a. Legal Positivism
b. Maximization of profits
c. Machiavellian ethics
d. Social responsibility.

Question 4

0.5 points

Stephanie is a successful entrepreneur but her company is not involved in
any civic affairs or charitable activities in the local community. Stephanie
likely is:
a. Liable to be sued civilly based on the principle of Legal Nonfeasance.

b. Immoral pursuant to the Last Resort principle for not “helping out” in the
community.
c. Immoral pursuant to Legal Positivism.
d. Socially irresponsible.

Question 5
Kyle, an accountant for Engineering Associates, Inc. attempts to apply the
duty approach to ethical reasoning in conflicts that occur on the job. This
approach is based on the idea that a person
a. Has a duty not to engage in unethical or immoral behavior no matter how
desirable the consequences may be
b. Has a duty to conform one’s behavior to society’s ethical standards
c. Has a duty to one’s employer that is superior to any duty owed to society as a
whole
c. May engage in unethical behavior if it achieves the greater good.

Question 6

0.5 points

Whistleblowing, that is, disclosure of wrongdoing, by corporate employees
can be described today as:
a. Morally required if the whistleblower is the last real alternative to disclose the
wrongdoing and the other parts of the Principle of Last Resort are applicable.
b. Legally protected under the Sarbanes­Oxley Act if the whistleblowing is by an
employee of a publicly traded company regulated by the Securities and Exchange
Commission and concerns some type of securities fraud or fraud against the
shareholders.
c. Only legally protected under those states that have private sector Whistleblower

Protection Statutes if the whistleblowing is made to an appropriate government
agency.
d. All of the above.

Question 7
CEO Alfredo is a devout believer in freedom of contract and the free use of
one’s private property. Considering these facts, which of the following may
best be classified as an accurate statement about Alfredo?
a. He will always follow the Utilitarian approach to the resolution of moral issues
in business.
b. He is a socially responsible “satisfier” rather than a profit­maximizer.
c. He is not a Natural Rights believer.
d. He is not disqualified from being an ethical thinker and actor concerning
business­related moral issues.
0.5 points

Question 8
A company that pressures and coerces its own employees to contribute their
own money and their own time to help out local charities in order for the
company to gain a good reputation for being socially responsible in the
community could be acting:
a. Morally pursuant to Utilitarianism
b. Immorally pursuant to Kantian ethics
c. Legally if the employees are employees at­will and no crimes or torts are
committed
d. All of the above.

Question 9
What is true about advertising?

a. A deceptive ad will generally be deemed to be illegal pursuant to FTC legal
standards as well as immoral pursuant to Kantian ethics.
b. A “half­truth” ad will always be legal and moral since something is only missing,
and no intentional affirmative misrepresentation is made.
c. Suggestive ads are always illegal and immoral since they are clearly deceitful,
coercive, and manipulative.
d. Companies and advertisers today need not worry at all about any socially
responsible aspects to advertising, since, so long as the ads are not outright
falsehoods and lies, they will not be called into account.

Question 10

0.5 points

There is a desperate need for AIDS drugs for sick people in certain very
poor African countries, whose governments cannot afford to buy the drugs
from the big multinational pharmaceutical companies who make the drugs
and possess the patents for the drugs. The pharmaceutical companies are
considering either selling the drugs deeply discounted or for that matter just
giving them for free to the governments of these African nations. Which of
the following is likely true about this scenario?
a. Legally, there is no obligation.
b. Morally, act to provide the drugs, if they are the last real alternative to help the African
AIDS sufferers and the Principle of Last Resort applies, or else risk being
condemned as an immoral industry.
c. Be socially responsible and supply the drugs, even if neither legally nor morally
obligated to do so, if doing so can be accomplished effectively and in a prudent
manner without harming the companies since “Big Pharma” will gain a good
reputation world­wide as a humanitarian industry.
d. All of the above.

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