In the eighteenth century, the concept of liberty was

| April 14, 2018

In the eighteenth century, the concept of liberty was, above all, a demand forA. national sovereignty.B. individual human rights.C. universal suffrage.D. economic equality.Cavour’s plan for expanding the Sardinian kingdom was rescued byA. Giuseppe Garibaldi.B. Pope Pius IX.C. Napoleon III.D. King Victor Emmanuel.Had you been infected by romanticism in the 1790s, you would haveA. rejected the study of history.B. embraced liberalism.C. embraced the work of Wilhelm Grimm.D. dismissed Voltaire’s ideas.4. The German journalist Friedrich List persuaded German states to enter into a customs union. List’sefforts expressed the ideology ofA. economic determinism.B. economic nationalism.C. tariff protectionism.D. class consciousness.5. Among the factors that brought about European colonialism, which of the following supported conceptsof racial superiority?A. Economic and trade opportunitiesB. The machine gunC. The introduction of the steam engine and the telegraphD. Social Darwinism6. Under the Tokugawa peace, daimyoA. were prohibited from coining money.B. social status increased.C. were heavily engaged in foreign trade.D. castle building was encouraged.7. Under the Tokugawa shoguns,A. samurai power increased as daimyo power decreased.B. the capital city was moved to Kyoto.C. kabuki theatre was banned.D. civil war was eliminated by controlling the military.8. All the following events were directly related to the eventual advent of British textile factories, exceptA. the water frame.B. the spinning jenny.C. the putting-out system.D. the growth of urbanization.9. As an immediate result of the Battle of Trafalgar,A. the German states were reorganized in Napoleon’s interest.B. both the French and the British fleets were demolished.C. Sweden joined the European alliance against NapoleonD. Napoleon’s plan to invade Britain was aborted.10. With respect to the ascendance of the Manchu Dynasty, what was the role of General Wu Sangui?A. He opened the Great Wall to admit the Manchu forces.B. He defended the Great Wall against the Manchu horde.C. He led Ming forces against the Manchu.D. He formed the military units known as banners.11. Regarding trade and social change in Africa, which statement is true?A. The West Africa Squadron succeeded in obstructing about 30 percent of the African slave trade.B. The transatlantic slave trade coincided with a substantial decline of slavery within Africa.C. The most important development in West Arica before European conquest was reliance on exporting salt.D. As late as 1750, Europeans viewed the slave trade as legitimate business.12. James Watt greatly improved the Newcomen engine byA. advocating coal burning over water power.B. inventing the puddling process.C. adding a separate condenser.D. replacing coal with coke13. For the masses, which of the following statements about the significant consequences of the rise ofscience is false?A. Faith in science completely displaced the importance of religion in most people’s lives.B. As science progressively influenced popular thought, people came to view natural processes as determined by physical laws,not divine intervention or human will.End of examC. Daily life experience and exposure to media impressed people with the importance of science.D. The methods of science gained great prestige and were seen as the only reliable path to verifiable truth.14. Regarding South Africa in the nineteenth century, which statement is true?A. The Dutch, furious about British policies, initiated the Anglo Boer War of 1899–1902.B. Cecil Rhodes dominated the De Beers mining company.C. The British failed to abolish slavery in the Cape Colony.D. Shaka of the Zulu strove to co-exist with Dutch settlers.

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