Human Resourses

I need a PPT on Chapter 8 Human Resources from the book Operations and Supply Chain Management, 9th edition by Roberta S. Russell: Bernard W. TaylorChapter 8 Human Resources: Be sure to include the following in your presentation:•A title slide•An agenda slide•A reference slide•Headings for each section•Speaker notes to support the content in each slideHuman ResourcesChristopher Futcher/Getty ImagesLEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you will be able to:● Discuss the basic principles of human resource management in quality-focused companies.● Discuss the changing nature of and contemporary trends in human resources management.● Explain different methods of employee compensation.● Describe the benefits of employee diversity and give examples of diversity initiatives.● Describe the attributes and elements of a good job design.● Use various tools to conduct a job analysis.● Determine and explain the learning curve effect for work improvement. A Commitment to Worker Sustainability at AppleApple has almost 100,000 full-time permanent employees who work directly for the company, and it has a reputation as a model employer. However, it also has over 1.5 million “quasi-employees” who work directly for Apple’s global suppliers, the preponderance in East Asia and China. Increasingly Apple has been under intense pressure by global media to accept a degree of responsibility for these workers, which is linked to a growing sense of social responsibility around the world that multinational companies should develop and maintain a sustainable work force. Almost all of Apple’s manufacturing is outsourced globally to over 750 supplier facilities, and enforcing work rules and policies in companies that are not your own and in countries that have very different government regulations than the United States or Europe can be a difficult process. However, in the past decade there were widely reported worker abuses, especially among Apple’s Chinese suppliers, including worker suicides, workers forced to work excessive overtime (sometimes seven days a week), under-aged workers, students forced to work in factories for up to two years, factory explosions, and worker exposure to hazardous and toxic chemicals, crowded substandard living quarters, and instances where over half of workers’ earnings were required by companies to pay for services such as rent and food.To address these and other worker sustainability issues Apple established a “Supplier Code of Conduct” and “Supplier Responsibility Standards,” that all of its suppliers are required to meet. Every Apple supplier factory must agree to follow this code and the standards and must agree to be audited. Factory audits are led by Apple auditors and supported by local third-party auditors who are experts in their fields and have been trained to use Apple’s detailed auditing procedures. Suppliers are graded on various data points corresponding to categories in the code of conduct. The auditors review payroll documents, interview workers, assess the health and safety conditions in a facility, and inspect environmental conditions inside and outside of the factory. Suppliers are required to remediate all violations and submit a corrective action plan within two weeks of the audit. Severe violations can result in termination as an Apple supplier. A team of verification specialists checks in with suppliers every 30 days for three months to assess progress, and a separate third-party auditor is hired to visit the facility at 120 days to independently verify the corrective actions. Since 2007, when the program started, over 2000 audits have been conducted, which have resulted in 92 percent compliance with Apple’s maximum 60-hour work week. In a recent year, audits resulted in almost $4 million repaid to foreign contact workers for excessive recruitment fees charged by labor brokers, almost $1 million paid to workers for unpaid overtime, and underage workers were sent back to school with full tuition and salary. In addition, Apple has undertaken worker empowerment and education programs that include millions of workers being trained on Apple’s code of conduct and their rights. Since Apple’s Supplier Employee Education and Development (SEED) program began in 2008, over 850,000 workers have taken coursers free of charge for personal development and some have received college degrees.Sources: Apple, Inc. website at www.apple.com/supplier-responsibility; and C.Duhigg and D. Barboza, “In China, Human Costs are Built Into an iPad,” The NY Times (January 25, 2012). Employees—the people who work in an organization—are “resources,” as important as other company resources, such as natural resources and technology. In fact, it is the one resource that all companies have available to them. A company in Taiwan, Japan, or Denmark may have different and few natural resources, certainly fewer than U.S. companies have, but they all have people. With the same or superior technologies as their competitors, and with good people, foreign companies can compete and thrive. Increasingly, skilled human resources are the difference between successfully competing or failing.The traditional view of employees or labor was not so much as a valuable resource, but as a replaceable part of the productive process that must be closely directed and controlled. The trend toward quality management, more than anything else, changed this perspective. W. E. Deming, the international quality expert, emphasized that good employees who are always improving are the key to successful quality management and a company’s ultimate survival. More than half of Deming’s 14 points for quality improvement relate to employees. His point is that if a company is to attain its goals for quality improvement and customer service, its employees must be involved and committed. However, to get employees “with the program,” the company must regard them and manage them as a valuable resource. Moreover, the company must have a commitment to its employees.Another thing that has changed the way companies regard employees and work is the shift in the U.S. economy toward the service sector and away from manufacturing. Since services tend to be more people-intensive than capital-intensive, human resources are becoming a more important competitive factor for service companies. Advances in information technologies have also changed the working environment, especially in service companies. Because they rely heavily on information technology and communication, services need employees who are technically skilled and can communicate effectively with customers. They also need flexible employees who can apply these skills to a variety of tasks and who are continuously trained to keep up with rapid advances in information technology.Increasing technological advances in equipment and machinery have also resulted in manufacturing work that is more technically sophisticated. Employees are required to be better educated, have greater skill levels and technical expertise, and are expected to take on greater responsibility. This work environment is a result of changing technologies and international market conditions, global competition that emphasizes diverse products, and an emphasis on product and service quality.In this chapter we first discuss employees’ role in achieving a company’s goals for quality. Next we provide a perspective on how work has developed and changed in the United States and then look at some of the current trends in human resources. We will also discuss some of the traditional aspects of work and job design.Human Resources and Quality ManagementMost successful quality-oriented firms today recognize the importance of their employees when developing a competitive strategy. Quality management is an integral part of most companies’ strategic design, and the role of employees is an important aspect of quality management. To change management’s traditional control-oriented relationship with employees to one of cooperation, mutual trust, teamwork, and goal orientation necessary in a quality-focused company generally requires a long-term commitment as a key part of a company’s strategic plan.In the traditional management–employee relationship, employees are given precise directions to achieve narrowly defined individual objectives. They are rewarded with merit pay based on individual performance in competition with their coworkers. Often individual excellence is rewarded while other employees look on in envy. In a successful quality management program, employees are given broad latitude in their jobs, they are encouraged to improvise, and they have the power to use their own initiative to correct and prevent problems. Strategic goals are for quality and customer service instead of maximizing profit or minimizing cost, and rewards are based on group achievement. Instead of limited training for specific, narrowly defined jobs, employees are trained in a broad range of skills so they know more about the entire productive process, making them flexible in where they can work.To manage human resources from this perspective, a company must focus on employees as a key, even central, component in their strategic design. All of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award winners have a pervasive human resource focus. Companies that successfully integrate this kind of “employees first” philosophy into their strategic design share several common characteristics. Employee training and education are recognized as necessary long-term investments. Strategic planning for product and technological innovation is tied to the development of employees’ skills, not only to help in the product development process but also to carry out innovations as they come to fruition. Motorola provides employees with 160 hours of training annually to keep up with technological changes and to learn how to understand and compete in newly emerging global markets.To make sure their strategic design for human resources is working, companies regularly monitor employee satisfaction using surveys and make changes when problems are identified. All Baldrige Quality Award-winning companies conduct annual employee surveys to assess employee satisfaction and make improvements.A safe, healthy working environment is a basic necessity to keep employees satisfied. Successful companies provide special services like recreational activities, day care, flexible work hours, cultural events, picnics, and fitness centers. Notice that these are services that treat employees like customers, an acknowledgment that there is a direct and powerful link between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction.Strategic goals for quality and customer satisfaction require teamwork and group participation. Quality-oriented companies want all employees to be team members to identify and solve quality-related problems. Team members and individuals are encouraged to make suggestions to improve processes. The motivation for employee suggestions is viewed as that of a concerned family member, not as a complainant or as “sticking one’s nose in.”It is important that employees understand what the strategic goals of the company are and that they feel like they can participate in achieving these goals. Employees need to believe they make a difference in order to be committed to goals and have pride in their work. Employee commitment and participation in the strategic plan can be enhanced if employees are involved in the planning process, especially at the local level. As the strategic plan passes down through the organization to the employee level, employees can participate in the development of local plans to achieve overall corporate goals.(Russell 312-314)Russell, Roberta S., Bernard Taylor. Operations and Supply Chain Management, 9th Edition. Wiley, 2016-10-17. VitalBook file.The citation provided is a guideline. Please check each citation for accuracy before use.

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