Pneumonia Case StudyPneumonia is a respiratory infection that impacts millions of Americans each year, and results in thousands of deaths across the country. Pneumonia can be caused by different types of microbes including fungi, viruses, or bacteria.Case Background: A 76-year old male is admitted to the hospital complaining of shortness of breath, high fever, coughing, and chest pain. X-rays and a medical exam indicate that the patient has pneumonia, but the causative microbe is unknown.Imagine that you work in the microbiology lab and you have been asked to help identify the cause of the patient’s pneumonia. A sputum sample is obtained and a slide is prepared for microscopic examination to identify the cause of the illness. At this stage, microscopic examination will only determine if the causative microbe is a fungus, a virus, or a bacterium.You have been asked to create an experimental plan to identify the type of microbe causing the patient’s pneumonia. Please complete Parts 1 and 2 below to help identify the causative agent of the pneumoni. Then, provide additional information about the impact of pneumonia on human health.Part ICreate a hypothesis to guide your experiment in determining if the patient’s pneumonia has been caused by a fungus, a virus, or a bacterium. You may only choose one of the three. Your hypothesis should be in an ‘if-then’ format, and should make a logical prediction of the type of microbe that caused the disease. For information on Hypothesis design, review the Designing a Hypothesis video, and/or visit the PG Science Center.Lab protocol requires examination of a sputum sample from an uninfected person to be used as a control. What is the purpose of a control sample in an experiment?In the first question you constructed a hypothesis with an independent variable that can be controlled by the experimenter such as the staining or fixation process to prepare the sample slides. Now you need to discuss the observable results or the dependent variable. What would you expect to see on the slide based on your prediction? What would the causative microbe cells look like under a microscope? For example, would you see a nucleus in the microbial cell? Would it be larger or smaller than the human cells?Part IIWrite an informative 400–600 word essay about the impact of pneumonia on human health. Include the following information in your essay:Symptoms of pneumoniaVulnerable populationsHow pneumonia infections are treatedHow individuals can protect themselves from pneumonia infectionBasic Writing Expectations400–600 wordsAt least 3 academic sources. The Library is also a great source for academic references. Do not use sources such as Wikipedia or Ask.com. References should be credible and academic in nature.Free of grammatical and spelling errors.No evidence of plagiarism. Assignment should be written in your own words, and sources should be properly cited and referenced. Use of quoted material should be limited to no more than 10% of the total paper.Use of APA style for body of paper, references and citations. Refer to the APA Quick Reference Guide.
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