globalization

| January 6, 2016

globalization

Order Description
Read as widely as you can on the concept of ‘globalization’ starting with the Levitt article, ‘The Globalization of Markets’. Ensure you are able to produce a balanced answer. Be able to critique his view on technology driving the world together.
Journal of Consumer Marketing
THE MYTH OF GLOBALIZATION
Yoram Wind
Article information:
To cite this document:
Yoram Wind, (1986),”THE MYTH OF GLOBALIZATION”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 3 Iss 2 pp. 23 – 26
Permanent link to this document:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb008160
Downloaded on: 05 January 2016, At: 01:51 (PT)
References: this document contains references to 0 other documents.
To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com
The fulltext of this document has been downloaded 1511 times since 2006*
Users who downloaded this article also downloaded:
Philip Kotler, (1986),”GLOBAL STANDARDIZATION—COURTING DANGER”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 3 Iss 2
pp. 13-15 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb008158
Nikolaos Papavassiliou, Vlasis Stathakopoulos, (1997),”Standardization versus adaptation of international
advertising strategies: Towards a framework”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31 Iss 7 pp. 504-527 http://
dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090569710176646
José F. Medina, Mike F. Duffy, (1998),”Standardization vs globalization: a new perspective of brand strategies”, Journal of
Product & Brand Management, Vol. 7 Iss 3 pp. 223-243 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610429810222859
Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by emerald-srm:187202 []
For Authors
If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service
information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit
www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information.
About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com
Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company manages a portfolio of
more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online
products and additional customer resources and services.
Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication
Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation.
*Related content and download information correct at time of download.
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL At 01:51 05 January 2016 (PT)
THE MYTH OF GLOBALIZATION
Yoram Wind
Global marketing might be likened to prescriptions
that apply to all situations. There is, however,
a broad framework within which one can examine
the issue of standardization, suggesting
that it might be a perfect strategy for some products,
some companies, and some situations, but totally
inappropriate for others.
First, let’s identify seven specific conditions
under which the standardization approach might
be appropriate, and evaluate these conditions to
see to what extent they really hold.
1. The one that is discussed most often is the
trend toward a homogenization of the
world’s wants. However, there is no strong
empirical evidence that the world is becoming
more homogeneous. True, world
segments are emerging, but these do not
necessarily entail a homogenization of consumer
wants. Furthermore, there is increasing
evidence of an intracountry segmentation
for the United States and many
other countries. Finally, there is correlating
evidence, especially from companies
that are working in different countries,
that different types of market response
functions exist in different countries; as
firms face these different market response
functions, the viability of the global strategy
becomes shaky.
2. The second argument suggested by Ted
Levitt is that people are willing to sacrifice
specific preferences in product features
and functions for lower price and high
quality. Again, there is no evidence that
consumers are becoming universally more
price conscious. In fact, some of the products
often viewed as global are fairly
expensive-Cartier watches, Louis Vuitton
handbags, or Canon cameras. Furthermore,
the desirability of focusing on lowprice
positioning is very questionable. In
fact, from a strategic point of view, proba-
Yoram Wind is the Lauder Professor and Professor of Marketing and Management at the Wharton School, University of
Pennsylvania. He is the Director of the Lauder Institute of Management and International Studies. He joined Wharton in
1967, after receiving his Ph.D. from Stanford University.
Dr. Wind has consulted and conducted research projects for close to 100 companies, including Pfizer, MRCA, Edward D.
Jones and a number of law firms. In addition, he is a frequent lecturer in faculty seminars and executive programs in the U.S.,
Canada, Australia, Japan, Europe, South America, and the Middle East.
The author of a recent book, Product Policy, Dr. Wind has co-authored several books including Advertising Measurement and
Decision Making, Marketing Segmentation, and Organizational Buying Behavior. The marketing literature has included over hundred and sixty of his articles, monographs and chapters on marketing research, buyer behavior and international
marketing.
Dr. Wind is a former Chairman of the Institute of Management Science, and he has received a number of awards, including
two Alpha Kappa Psi Foundation Awards for the best articles published in the Journal of Marketing in 1973 and 1976.
VOL. 3 NO. 2 SPRING 1986 23
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL At 01:51 05 January 2016 (PT)
THE JOURNAL OF CONSUMER MARKETING
bly the last thing a company would want to
do is position itself as a low-price producer.
Low price offers no long-term consumer
franchise, and there is always the possibility
that a cheaper technology or lower labor
costs elsewhere will eliminate the company’s
temporary advantage. Furthermore, a
customer who buys based on price will
tend to switch to a lower-price product. Finally,
given the tremendous diversity in
the competitive environment across countries,
very often a standard product will be
overdesigned for some countries and
underdesigned for others; the same product
could then be overpriced in some countries
and underpriced in others.
3. A third argument often presented economies
of scale. Current developments in factory
automation allow, however, product
customization without major cost implications.
More important, with many products
the cost of production is a relatively insignificant
part of the total product
cost-for example, in pharmaceuticals and
cosmetics. Another disturbing factor is
that in much of the discussion on standardization,
the focus is strictly on the product
and technology. What has been ignored is
the role of the other decisions involved.
If one explores, for instance, a very simple sequence
of decisions-positioning, product line,
brand name, packaging, pricing, advertising and
public relations, customer and trade promotion,
and distribution, one has the option for each of
these either to go global or not. By focusing only
on the product, a company would ignore the complexity
of the marketing decision.
Table 1 illustrates a preliminary framework to
evaluate global strategies; the standardized approach
advocated is only the extreme left branch
of the diagram, which, with its eight items, represents
only one out of 256 combinations. The
other extreme approach will obviously be the
fully customized strategy, which again is not very
desirable because it eliminates all the possible synergies
among various country operations.
4. An extremely important condition which
probably by itself can justify opting for a
standardized approach, is the preference
of a number of global market segments for
a uniform physical product and brand
image. This is often the case for industrial
companies, which have a preference for
the same product specifications and the
same service in various parts of the world.
If this is the case, then one can make a
strong argument for at least some of the
components of the marketing strategy to
be globalized. But again, the advisability of
doing this has to be weighed against other
strategic factors: the size and growth of the
segment, the strength of the preference of
this segment, the expected profitability
from the segment, and the ability to reach
the segment effectively.
24
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL At 01:51 05 January 2016 (PT)
5. The fifth set of conditions requires that
there be no external constraints on the
firm’s ability to implement the standardized
strategy.
First we have to recognize the fact that operating
around the world there are numerous government
regulations with which a company must
deal.
Second, there are tremendous differences
among countries; Ted Levitt correctly stresses
that one should not focus only on differences, one
should look for commonality and similarity; however,
one cannot ignore the differences and the
need to adapt to them. Most international blunders
stem from instances of cultural insensitivity—
lack of awareness of values, and attitudes-that
cause a strategy which is extremely successful in
one country to prove wrong in another.
Very often a standard product will be
overdesigned for some countries and
underdesigned for others; the same
product could then be overpriced in
some countries and underpriced in
others.
The third factor, which is an important one, is
the fact that there are tremendous interdependencies
between the marketing decision and other
decisions the firm has to make with respect to resource
markets-such as procurement of raw materials,
technology, manufacturing, human resources,
and financial. Marketing decisions
cannot ignore these factors but rather have to
deal specifically with them.
6. Another set of conditions relates to the absence
of internal constraints on the firm’s
ability to implement a standardized strategy.
Two major factors operate in this case:
one is the fact that most firms do have international
operations. They do not start
from scratch and say: “We are a U.S. firm;
let’s look at a world of 170 or so countries,
and decide which countries we want to
reach with a standardized strategy.” Most
companies instead have established operations,
established commitments such as
joint ventures, wholly owned subsidiaries,
long-term contracts with distributors, and
so forth. This network of relationships in
many markets must be taken into account
when a company designs a strategy.
The second factor at stake here presents an interesting
problem. There is much discussion
about the age of entrepreneurship and about
ways to enhance it in corporate settings. There is
concern about large bureaucratic organizations
that kill entrepreneurship and lose employees
who decide to go on their own. This situation has
led to a move toward decentralized structures in
which the authority and responsibility belong to
the local manager. A standardized approach, on
the other hand, takes the initiative and entrepreneurial
spirit away from the country managers; in
this respect, standardization which tends to be associated
with centralization, could create major
problems to the long-term survival of the firm.
7. The final condition that affects the decision
to follow global strategy is the presence
of positive synergy from
multicountry operations. Yet synergy, despite
its importance, is not limited to a
standardized approach. It can be achieved
among non-standardized but integrated
strategies.
Given the problems that we have outlined, and
the increased risk of standardization, what is the
solution? An obvious conclusion is that standardization
is one, and only one, of many possible
strategies.
If we look at these factors more systematically,
we can develop a framework for the classification
and determination of the most appropriate global
strategy. Given the various marketing strategy
components-positioning, segmentation, product
line, brand name, packaging, pricing, and so on—
there are three major types of strategies one can
follow:
The first one is standardization, with the entire
marketing mix strategy being the same worldwide.
This is a very special case.
Network of relationships in many
markets must be taken into account
when a company designs a strategy.
The other extreme is a total differentiation with
a distinct strategy being designed for each country.
This is not very desirable, because it eliminates
all possible operating synergies.
We are then left with mixed strategies, which
25
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL At 01:51 05 January 2016 (PT)
THE JOURNAL OF CONSUMER MARKETING
encompass the range of 254 strategies between
those two extremes. There are even more options
if one adds another level in the continuum from
standardization to differentiation-that is, a cluster
of segments or countries. This would increase the
number of options from 256 (28) to 576 (38).
Given the large range of possible strategies, it is
desirable for companies to start profiling their operations
and find out where they are among all
these possible options. Each profiled strategy
should be examined to see whether changes in it,
either toward globalization or toward a more idiosyncratic
strategy per country, would be desirable.
In addition, a useful conceptual guideline
for the selection of the best strategy can be altered
from what I would like to call think globally, act locally.
What this approach suggests is that overall
design follows worldwide perspective but that
every detail of the marketing strategy takes into
account the idiosyncratic country characteristics
and cultural differences. There is no difference in
the approach that we should use to design these
strategies in each country and the one we use domestically.
However, the perspective should be a
global one encompassing the entire range of operations,
looking at the global competitive and market
environment.
A standardized approach takes the
initiative and entrepreneurial spirit
away from the country managers.
By following the strategy of think globally, act locally,
we (a) take advantage of what Ted Levitt
suggested to us, that is, that changes in the world
force us to move away from thinking domestically,
(b) avoid the pitfalls of inappropriate global
standardization and (c) employ marketingoriented
approach and take advantage of our understanding
of the local conditions in each one of
the world markets.
26
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL At 01:51 05 January 2016 (PT)
This article has been cited by:
1. Ali Kanso, Richard Alan Nelson, Philip James Kitchen. 2015. Meaningful obstacles remain to standardization of international
services advertising. International Journal of Commerce and Management 25:4, 490-511. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
2. Xiaochen Zhang, Weiting Tao, Sora Kim. 2014. A Comparative Study on Global Brands’ Micro Blogs between China
and USA: Focusing on Communication Styles and Branding Strategies. International Journal of Strategic Communication 8,
231-249. [CrossRef]
3. Matthias Baum, Rüdiger Kabst. 2013. How to attract applicants in the Atlantic versus the Asia-Pacific region? A crossnational
analysis on China, India, Germany, and Hungary. Journal of World Business 48, 175-185. [CrossRef]
4. Masato Inoue. 2013. The Suggestion of Product Brand Management Improvement to Global Marketing Framework. Journal
of Marketing & Distribution 15, 63-76. [CrossRef]
5. Salah S. Hassan, Stephen Craft. 2012. Examining world market segmentation and brand positioning strategies. Journal of
Consumer Marketing 29:5, 344-356. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
6. Megha Jain, Shadab Khalil, Angelina Nhat-Hanh Le, Julian Ming-Sung Cheng. 2012. The glocalisation of channels of
distribution: a case study. Management Decision 50:3, 521-538. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
7. Maktoba Omar, Marc Porter. 2011. Reducing risk in foreign market entry strategies: standardization versus modification.
Competitiveness Review 21:4, 382-396. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
8. Guda Sridhar, Debiprasad Mishra. 2011. Executives social representation of rurality and product adaptation. Asia Pacific
Journal of Marketing and Logistics 23:3, 285-303. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
9. Vinita P. Ambwani, Louise Heslop, Lorraine S. Dyke. 2011. Implementing diversity strategies. Equality, Diversity and
Inclusion: An International Journal 30:4, 332-349. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
10. Nives Zubcevic, Sandra Luxton. 2011. A comparison of print advertisements from Australia and Croatia. Australasian
Marketing Journal (AMJ) 19, 131-136. [CrossRef]
11. Chien-Hsiung Lin. 2011. Industry-specific competitiveness of a nation and its consequence on overseas marketing
performance: Measurement construction and empirical study that follows porter’s diamond model. Journal of Information and
Optimization Sciences 32, 605-620. [CrossRef]
12. Roger J. Calantone, Janell D. TownsendInternational Product Innovation and Development . [CrossRef]
13. Irem Eren Erdogmus, Muzaffer Bodur, Cengiz Yilmaz. 2010. International strategies of emerging market firms. European
Journal of Marketing 44:9/10, 1410-1436. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
14. Thomas L. Powers, Jeffrey J. Loyka. 2010. Adaptation of Marketing Mix Elements in International Markets. Journal of Global
Marketing 23, 65-79. [CrossRef]
15. David A. Griffith. 2010. Understanding multi-level institutional convergence effects on international market segments and
global marketing strategy. Journal of World Business 45, 59-67. [CrossRef]
16. Edward R. Bruning, Michael Y. Hu, Wei (Andrew) Hao. 2009. Cross-national segmentation. European Journal of Marketing
43:11/12, 1498-1522. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
17. Kyung-Sook Jeon, Hye-Jung Park. 2009. Susceptibility to Global Consumer Culture – Scale Validation and Relationships
with Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and Attitude toward Purchasing Global Fashion Brands -. Journal
of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles 33, 1419-1429. [CrossRef]
18. Hye-Jung Park, Nancy J. Rabolt. 2009. Cultural value, consumption value, and global brand image: A cross-national study.
Psychology and Marketing 26:10.1002/mar.v26:8, 714-735. [CrossRef]
19. Carlos M.P. Sousa, Frank Bradley. 2009. Price adaptation in export markets. European Journal of Marketing 43:3/4, 438-458.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
20. Goro Oba. 2009. Programming Strategies of U.S.-Originated Cable Networks in Asian Markets: Descriptive Study Based on
the Product Standardization and Adaptation Theory. International Journal on Media Management 11, 18-31. [CrossRef]
21. Peter Gabrielsson, Mika Gabrielsson, Hannele Gabrielsson. 2008. International advertising campaigns in fast-moving consumer
goods companies originating from a SMOPEC country. International Business Review 17, 714-728. [CrossRef]
22. Carlos M.P. Sousa, Frank Bradley. 2008. Antecedents of international pricing adaptation and export performance. Journal of
World Business 43, 307-320. [CrossRef]
23. Lianxi Zhou, Lefa Teng, Patrick S. Poon. 2008. Susceptibility to global consumer culture: A three-dimensional scale.
Psychology and Marketing 25:10.1002/mar.v25:4, 336-351. [CrossRef]
24. Drew Martin, Arch G. Woodside. 2008. Dochakuka. Journal of Global Marketing 21, 19-32. [CrossRef]
25. John K. Ryans, David A. Griffith, Subhash JainA historical examination of the evolution of international advertising
standardization/adaptation thought 279-293. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF] [PDF]
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL At 01:51 05 January 2016 (PT)
26. Kim-Shyan Fam, Reinhard Grohs. 2007. Cultural values and effective executional techniques in advertising. International
Marketing Review 24:5, 519-538. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
27. Christian Dianoux, Jana Kettnerová, Zdenek Linhart. 2007. Advertising in Czech and French Magazines. Journal of
Euromarketing 16, 139-152. [CrossRef]
28. Nanda K. Viswanathan, Peter R. Dickson. 2007. The fundamentals of standardizing global marketing strategy. International
Marketing Review 24:1, 46-63. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
29. Abhay Shah, Heidi Laino. 2006. Marketing a U.S. University to International Students: Which Approach Is Best–
Standardization, Adaptation, or Contingency? An Investigation of Consumer Needs in Seven Countries. Journal of Marketing
for Higher Education 16, 1-24. [CrossRef]
30. Habte G. Woldu, Pawan S. Budhwar, Carole Parkes. 2006. A cross-national comparison of cultural value orientations of
Indian, Polish, Russian and American employees. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 17, 1076-1094.
[CrossRef]
31. Jelena Širaliova, Jannis J. Angelis. 2006. Marketing strategy in the Baltics: standardise or adapt?. Baltic Journal of Management
1:2, 169-187. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
32. Jagdish N. Sheth, Arun Sharma. 2005. International e-marketing: opportunities and issues. International Marketing Review
22:6, 611-622. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
33. Charles Okigbo, Drew Martin, Osabuohien P. Amienyi. 2005. Our ads ‘R US: an exploratory content analysis of American
advertisements. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 8:3, 312-326. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
34. Yaron Timmor, Jehiel Zif. 2005. A Typology of Marketing Strategies for Export. Journal of Global Marketing 18, 37-78.
[CrossRef]
35. Drew Martin. 2005. Advertiser acculturation in Japan: examples from foreign actors. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and
Logistics 17:2, 71-83. [Abstract] [PDF]
36. Angela Roper. 2005. Marketing standardisation: tour operators in the Nordic region. European Journal of Marketing 39:5/6,
514-527. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
37. James Derleth, Joel Herche. 2005. Economic and Political Freedom and Market Alienation: A Comparative Study of Bulgaria,
China, and the United States. Journal of Euromarketing 14, 83-98. [CrossRef]
38. Salah S. Hassan, Stephen H. Craft. 2005. Linking global market segmentation decisions with strategic positioning options.
Journal of Consumer Marketing 22:2, 81-89. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
39. Carlos M. P. Sousa, Frank Bradley. 2005. Global markets: does psychic distance matter?. Journal of Strategic Marketing 13,
43-59. [CrossRef]
40. Sumit K. Kundu, Maija RenkoExplaining Export Performance: A Comparative Study of International New Ventures in Finnish
and Indian Software Industry 43-84. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF] [PDF]
41. Isabelle Schuiling, Jean-Noël Kapferer. 2004. Executive Insights: Real Differences Between Local and International Brands:
Strategic Implications for International Marketers. Journal of International Marketing 12, 97-112. [CrossRef]
42. A. N. M. Waheeduzzaman, Leon F. Dube. 2004. Trends and Development in Standardization Adaptation Research. Journal
of Global Marketing 17, 23-52. [CrossRef]
43. Juan Florin, Alphonso O. Ogbuehi. 2004. Strategic Choice In International Ventures: A Contingency Framework Integrating
Standardization and Entry-Mode Decisions. Multinational Business Review 12:2, 83-110. [Abstract] [PDF]
44. Mary Conway Dato-On, Lala Moustafaeva. 2004. A Preliminary Test of an Index for International Consumer Behavior.
Journal of East-West Business 10, 73-92. [CrossRef]
45. John K. Ryans Jr, David A. Griffith, D. Steven White. 2003. Standardization/adaptation of international marketing strategy.
International Marketing Review 20:6, 588-603. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
46. Salah S. Hassan, Stephen Craft, Wael Kortam. 2003. Understanding the new bases for global market segmentation. Journal
of Consumer Marketing 20:5, 446-462. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
47. Marios Theodosiou, Leonidas C. Leonidou. 2003. Standardization versus adaptation of international marketing strategy: an
integrative assessment of the empirical research. International Business Review 12, 141-171. [CrossRef]
48. Aref A. Alashban, Linda A. Hayes, George M. Zinkhan, Anne L. Balazs. 2002. International Brand-Name Standardization/
Adaptation: Antecedents and Consequences. Journal of International Marketing 10, 22-48. [CrossRef]
49. Göran Svensson. 2002. Beyond global marketing and the globalization of marketing activities. Management Decision 40:6,
574-583. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
50. J-M. Aurifeille, P.G. Quester, L. Lockshin, T. Spawton. 2002. Global vs international involvement-based segmentation.
International Marketing Review 19:4, 369-386. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
51. Zororo Muranda. 2002. Strategies of Developing Country Exporters: Empirical Evidence from Zimbabwe’s Manufacturers.
Journal of African Business 3, 33-57. [CrossRef]
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL At 01:51 05 January 2016 (PT)
52. Cameron James Hughes, Michael Jay PolonskyAdvertising communication in Australia: A comparison of information used
by Australian, Japanese and U.S. firms 263-280. [Abstract] [Enhanced Abstract] [PDF] [PDF]
53. Larry Lockshin, Pascale Quester, Tony Spawton. 2001. Segmentation by Involvement or Nationality for Global Retailing: A
Cross-national Comparative Study of Wine Shopping Behaviours. Journal of Wine Research 12, 223-236. [CrossRef]
54. Paul R. Baines, Christian Scheucher, Fritz Plasser. 2001. The “Americanisation” myth in European political markets – A focus
on the United Kingdom. European Journal of Marketing 35:9/10, 1099-1117. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
55. Marios Theodosiou, Constantine S. Katsikeas. 2001. Factors Influencing the Degree of International Pricing Strategy
Standardization of Multinational Corporations. Journal of International Marketing 9, 1-18. [CrossRef]
56. Mary A. Littrell, Nancy J. Miller. 2001. Marketing Across Cultures. Journal of Global Marketing 15, 67-86. [CrossRef]
57. Jagdish N. Sheth, Atul Parvatiyar. 2001. The antecedents and consequences of integrated global marketing. International
Marketing Review 18:1, 16-29. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
58. Göran Svensson. 2001. “Glocalization” of business activities: a “glocal strategy” approach. Management Decision 39:1, 6-18.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
59. Leo Y.M. Sin, Suk-Ching Ho, Stella L.M. So. 2000. An Assessment of Theoretical and Methodological Development in
Advertising Research on Mainland China: A Twenty-Year Review. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising 22,
53-69. [CrossRef]
60. Hildy Teegen. 2000. Examining strategic and economic development implications of globalising through franchising.
International Business Review 9, 497-521. [CrossRef]
61. Sharon O’Donnell, Insik Jeong. 2000. Marketing standardization within global industries. International Marketing Review
17:1, 19-33. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
62. Douglas M. Sanford Jr, Lynda Maddox. 1999. KEY ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT – Advertising agency management of
domestic and international accounts. International Marketing Review 16:6, 504-517. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
63. Bob Brotherton, Gerrie Adler. 1999. An integrative approach to enhancing customer value and corporate performance in the
international hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management 18, 261-272. [CrossRef]
64. Patrick J. Kaufmann, Sevgin Eroglu. 1999. Standardization and adaptation in business format franchising. Journal of Business
Venturing 14, 69-85. [CrossRef]
65. José F. Medina, Mike F. Duffy. 1998. Standardization vs globalization: a new perspective of brand strategies. Journal of Product
& Brand Management 7:3, 223-243. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
66. Norberto Muñiz-Martínez. 1998. The internationalisation of European retailers in America: the US experience. International
Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 26:1, 29-37. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
67. Reinhard Hiinerberg, Gilbert Heise, C. M. Sashi. 1997. International Market Segmentation. Journal of Segmentation in
Marketing 1, 71-92. [CrossRef]
68. D. Steven White, David A. Griffith. 1997. Combining corporate and marketing strategy for global competitiveness. Marketing
Intelligence & Planning 15:4, 173-178. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
69. Michael Y. Hu. 1997. Conceptualizing the global marketplace: marketing strategy implications. Marketing Intelligence &
Planning 15:3, 117-123. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
70. Bert Rosenbloom, Trina Larsen, Rajiv Mehta. 1997. Global Marketing Channels and the Standardization Controversy. Journal
of Global Marketing 11, 49-64. [CrossRef]
71. Shaoming Zou, David M. Andrus, D. Wayne Norvell. 1997. Standardization of international marketing strategy by firms from
a developing country. International Marketing Review 14:2, 107-123. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
72. Jeryl Whitelock, Carole Pimblett. 1997. The Standardisation Debate in International Marketing. Journal of Global Marketing
10, 45-66. [CrossRef]
73. Subir Sengupta, Katherine T. Frith. 1997. Multinational corporation advertising and cultural imperialism: A content analysis
of Indian television commercials. Asian Journal of Communication 7, 1-18. [CrossRef]
74. Leonidas C. Leonidou. 1996. Product standardization or adaptation: the Japanese approach. Journal of Marketing Practice:
Applied Marketing Science 2:4, 53-71. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
75. William J. McDonald. 1996. Home shopping channel customer segments: a cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Direct
Marketing 9:10.1002/dir.v9:4, 57-67. [CrossRef]
76. Greg Harris. 1996. International advertising: Developmental and implementational issues. Journal of Marketing Management
12, 551-560. [CrossRef]
77. Benita Cox, Peter Saunders. 1996. Designing for cyber-based business simulations. Journal of Computing in Higher Education
8, 29-47. [CrossRef]
78. Klaus G. Grunert, Suzanne C. Grunert, Wolfgang Glatzer, Heiner Imkamp. 1995. The changing consumer in Germany.
International Journal of Research in Marketing 12, 417-433. [CrossRef]
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL At 01:51 05 January 2016 (PT)
79. Jean L. Johnson, Wiboon Arunthanes. 1995. Ideal and actual product adaptation in US exporting firms. International
Marketing Review 12:3, 31-46. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
80. A. Diamantopoulos, B.B. Schlegelmilch, J.P. Du Preez. 1995. Lessons for pan-European marketing? The role of consumer
preferences in fine-tuning the product-market fit. International Marketing Review 12:2, 38-52. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
81. Madhu Agrawal. 1995. Review of a 40-year debate in international advertising. International Marketing Review 12:1, 26-48.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
82. George M. Zinkhan, Arun Pereira. 1994. Review. International Journal of Research in Marketing 11, 185-218. [CrossRef]
83. Ronald E. Goldsmith, Jon B. Freiden, Jacqueline C. Kilsheimer. 1993. Social values and female fashion leadership: A crosscultural
study. Psychology and Marketing 10:10.1002/mar.v10:5, 399-412. [CrossRef]
84. John L. Graham, Michael A. Kamins, Djoko S. Oetomo. 1993. Content Analysis of German and Japanese Advertising in
Print Media from Indonesia, Spain, and the United States. Journal of Advertising 22, 5-15. [CrossRef]
85. Dennis M. Sandler, David Shani. 1993. Brand Globally but Advertise Locally?. Journal of Product & Brand Management 2:2,
59-71. [Abstract] [PDF]
86. Dennis M. Sandler, David Shani. 1992. Brand Globally but Advertise Locally?: An Empirical Investigation. International
Marketing Review 9:4. . [Abstract] [PDF]
87. James Wills, A. Coskun Samli, Laurence Jacobs. 1991. Developing global products and marketing strategies: A construct and
a research agenda. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 19, 1-10. [CrossRef]
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL At 01:51 05 January 2016 (PT)

Get a 30 % discount on an order above $ 50
Use the following coupon code:
COCONUT
Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code: COCONUTOrder Now
Positive SSL