Geography IF91 the award of a zero grade

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Geography IF91

Page 1 of 30

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

NaDle: _______________________________ I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ ____
BROCK UNIVERSITY
Progress Examination:
Course:
Date of Examination:
Time of Examination:

Number of Pages:
30
Number of Students:
436
Number of Hours:
3
Instructor:
D. Dagesse

December 2012
Geography 1F91
December 5, 2012
9:00 – 12:00

No examination aids other than those specified on the examination script are permitted (this
regulation does not preclude special arrangements being made for students with disabilities).
Use or possession of unauthorized materials will automatically result in the award of a zero grade
for this examination. Calculators are permitted.
******************************************************

Answer ALL QUESTIONS in SECTION A on the SCANTRON Sheet.
REMEMBER:

Carefully mark in your Student Number.
Do not bend the SCANTRON Sheet
A soft (HB) pencil must be used to mark SCANTRON answers.
The SCANTRON bubbles must be completely filled in with a horizontal
mark.
5. No more than one bubble per question may be marked.
6. The answer to number 31 is C.
7. Erasures must be clean. Accidental or poor erasure marks will result in
an invalid reading by SCANTRON.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Take care ill fillillg ill the SCANTRON Sheet! Be sure your STUDENT ID Number is
correctly marked ill Oil the SCANTRON sheet! If your sheet is not read correctly by the
SCANTRON reader, you’re throwing away your grade for this section of the exam!
******************************************************

Answer SECTION B on the Examination Script.
Please ensure that your NAME and
STUDENT NUMBER is on every page in Section B that you intend to have marked.

Circle the question numbers you answered ill SECTION B.
SECTION B QUESTIONS ANSWERED
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Geography 1F91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 2 of 30

Section A: Multiple Choice (50%)
Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1.

In the context of global warming, an increase in cloud coverage that would result in
more reflection of solar radiation back to space, thus cooling global temperatures, is an
example of:
A. a positive feedback
B. a negative feedback
C. a convection loop
D. a climate system

2.

The transfer of sensible heat that occurs when two objects of unlike temperature are in
contact is called:
A. convection
B. radiation
C. latent transfer
D. conduction

3.

The terms continental arctic (cA), continental polar (cP), and maritime tropical (mT) are
used to describe:
A. air sources
B. humidity content
C. air temperature
D. air masses

4.

Which of the following is not responsible for the urban heating effect?
A. the materials cities are constructed from conduct heat better than natural soils.
B. the albedo of urban environments is substantially higher than that of natural
landscapes.
C. the concentration of people, machines, and heat-generating devices adds more heat
to the environment.
D. less evaporation occurs from city surfaces.

5.

What air mass is responsible for increased summer precipitation in the moist continental
climate?
A. mE
B. mP
C. mT
D. cT

6.

Mid-latitude cyclonic storms tend to move generally from _ _ _ _ _ to _ _ _ __
A. north; south
B. high temperature; low temperature
C. west; east
D. high pressure; low pressure

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 3 of 30

7.

The largest solar energy input to the Earth’s surface would likely be over:
A. Whitehorse, Yukon, at 60 0 N on June 22
B. a desert at 23Y2oN on June 22
C. a rainforest at 0° latitude on June 22
D. Winnipeg, Manitoba, at 49°N on June 22

8.

Climate is:
A. based on vegetation types alone
B. a model of reality that is too simplistic to be useful
C. based on temperature and precipitation averages over decades
D. a reflection of solar insolation values and placement in relation to the prime
meridian

9.

What region has the largest annual variation in insolation?
A. the Arctic
B. the equator
C. the midlatitudes
D. the tropics

10.

The amount of insolation falling on the surface of the Earth is dependent upon:
A. the angle the Sun’s rays make with the Earth’s surface
B. the longitude of a location
C. the amount of glacial coverage in a particular area
D. the amount of ocean surface in a particular region

II.

The region of midlatitude climates lies in the:
A. polar front zone
B. ITCZ
C. tropical zone
D. arctic zone

12.

The percentage of short-wave radiant energy reflected upward by a surface is termed its:
A. outflow
B. radiation
C. albedo
D. reflection

13.

Which of the following is not a control of air temperature?
A. insolation
B. elevation
C. coastal versus interior location
D. longitude

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 4 of 30

14.

Cold fronts compared to warm fronts are:
A. slower moving with short duration intense rainfall
B. slower moving with short duration less intense rainfall
C. faster moving with longer duration less intense rainfall
D. faster moving with short duration intense rainfall

15.

The
of:
A.
B.
C.
D.

ITCZ is an area of convergence of surface winds located at the approximate latitude

16.

The
A.
B.
C.
D.

tropical desert climates are caused by:
the presence of large mountain ranges
cold temperatures that reduce the ability of the air to hold moisture
a rate of precipitation that outweighs the rate of evaporation
stationary sUbtropical high-pressure cells

17.

Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?
A. carbon dioxide
B. methane
C. argon
D. nitrous oxide

18.

The closer together isobars are the steeper the pressure gradient that exists and the
resulting wind will be:
A. weaker
B. not affected by friction
C. deflected to the right
D. stronger

19.

Systems that settle into an equilibrium are normally stabilized by:
A. positive feedback
B. negative feedback
C. flux
D. human interventions

20.

A sharply defined boundary between a given air mass and a neighbouring air mass is
called:
A. a cyclone
B. an anticyclone
C. a front
D. an occlusion


30 0 N and S
4SON and S
60 0 N and S

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 5 of 30

21.

As our planet warms in response to changes from the greenhouse effect, the frequency of
extreme events like
are predicted to increase.
A. droughts
B. earthquakes
C. volcanic eruptions
D. seismic sea waves

22.

Precipitation resulting from the uplifting of air over mountain ranges is called:
A. convective
B. orographic
C. cyclonic
D. advective

23.

Which of the following is not a result of the tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation?
A. the change in day length through the year
B. the seasons
C. the length of the year
D. the change in temperature, air humidity, and air motion

24.

When water evaporates, the energy that was used to evaporate the water:
A. is stored as sensible heat in the evaporated water
B. is stored as latent heat in the evaporated water
C. is transferred to the air by advection when the water evaporates
D. is conducted into the underlying layer of water

25.

A person lives in an area where the annual air temperature does not vary significantly.
This person most likely lives:
A. in the middle of a continent
B. near a large body of water
C. at a high altitude
D. in an agricultural area

26.

When the flow in a system is reinforced continuously:
A. positive feedback is occurring
B. negative feedback is occurring
C. equilibrium has been reached
D. the system is overcharged and fails

27.

As the Earth is a much cooler body than the sun, the Earth emits:
A. ultraviolet radiation
B. short-wave infrared radiation
C. long-wave radiation
D. visible light radiation

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 6 of 30

28.

Why is the saturated or wet adiabatic lapse rate lower than the dry adiabatic lapse rate?
A. because latent heat is released through condensation
B. because latent heat is absorbed through condensation
C. because the air expands, linked to the decrease in atmospheric pressure with
increasing altitude
D. because cloud formation cools the air temperature significantly

29.

Which of the following is not one of the thermal differences between land and water
surfaces?
A. solar radiation can deeply penetrate rock and soil
B. the specific heat of water is much higher than that of rock
C. ocean water experiences thermal mixing
D. open water surfaces can easily be cooled by evaporation

30.

What factor limits the ability of the air to hold water vapour?
A. specific humidity
B. air temperature
C. relative humidity
D. dew-point temperature

31.

A broad layer of _ _ _ _ clouds are typically associated alongside a warm front:
A. cirrus
B. cumulus
C. stratus
D. cumulonimbus

32.

In the midlatitudes, weather systems like low pressure cyclones and their associated
fronts characteristically move generally:
A. from south to east
B. from north to west
C. from east to west
D. from west to east

33.

Daytime sea breeze conditions are typically associated with:
A. low pressure over land surface and high pressure over water surface
B. low pressure over water surface and high pressure over land surface
C. descending air over the land and ascending air over the water
D. pressure gradients resulting from annual fluctuations in temperature

34.

In relation to matter, the Earth is what type of flow system?
A. open
B. closed
C. material cycle
D. energy cycle

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5,2012

Page 7 of 30

35.

The
A.
B.
C.
D.

process of temperature change due to the expansion or compression of air is called:
the adiabatic process
compression
expansion
condensation

36.

Which gas is one of the major greenhouse gases in our atmosphere?
A. nitrogen
B. argon
C. carbon dioxide
D. oxygen

37.

In a northern hemisphere low pressure cyclone:
A. air spirals inward and upward
B. air spirals inward and downward
C. air spirals outward and upward
D. air spirals outward and downward

38.

A ______ is a set or collection of things that are somehow related and
organized.
A. scale
B. system
C. pathway
D. realm

39.

The
A.
B.
C.
D.

40.

Relative humidity:
A. is the maximum total amount of water vapour that can be held by the air
B. is the actual quantity of water vapour held by a parcel of air
C. depends on the volume of water vapour present in the air and is unrelated to air
temperature
D. compares the amount of water vapour in the air to the amount the air could hold at
that given temperature

41.

What type of cloud is commonly associated with the production of thunderstorms?
A. cumulonimbus
B. cumulus
C. stratus
D. CIrrus

lifting of air as a result of heating is called:
convection
orographic
stable
advection

Geography 1F91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 8of30

42.

The transfer of heat from one point to another by a moving substance such as air or
water is called:
A. radiative transfer
B. conduction
C. insolation
D. convection

43.

In the cases of warm and cold fronts, the warm air rises above the cold air because:
A. warm air is less dense than cold air
B. thunderstorms force warm air upward in their updrafts
C. cold air is affected by gravity and warm air is not
D. all air moves upward in anticyclones

44.

Jet streams are:
A. narrow zones at high altitudes in which wind streams reach great speeds over the
speed of sound
B. narrow zones at high altitudes in which wind streams reach high velocities
C. wind streams that only exist along the equator and travel at high velocities
D. well known for shredding aircraft when they inadvertently enter them

45.

Without the Earth’s natural greenhouse effect, our planet:
A. would be much warmer
B. would be much colder
C. would have a much lower surface albedo
D. would not be any different than it is right now

46.

When the flow in a system is reduced:
A. positive feedback is feeding the system
B. negative feedback is regulating the system
C. equilibrium in the system has been reached
D. the system is overcharged and fails

47.

What two major factors can influence the annual cycle of air temperature experienced at
a given location?
A. latitude and longitude
B. longitude and coastal versus continental location
C. latitude and coastal versus continental location
D. annual insolation and longitude

48.

A _ _ _ _ _ is actually a way of thinking about how things move, change, and
interact.
A. flow pattern
B. positive feedback loop
C. system
D. negative feedback mechanism

Geography 1F91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 90f30

49.

The
effect is a phenomenon related to the Earth’s rotation that causes an
apparent deflection to the right of air and ocean currents in the northern hemisphere.
A. tidal
B. Coriolis
C. centrifugal
D. centripetal

50.

St. Catharines has a _ _ _ _ _ _ climate as defined by the Koppen Climatic
Classification scheme.
A. BWh
B. Cwa
C. Dfb
D. Aw

Now that you’ve completed the Multiple Choice, go back over your SCANTRON sheet and be
sure your I.D. number is filled in correctly in the bubbles as well as written in the spaces above.
Without your I.D. number, the computer doesn’t know you were here and this portion of the
exam will not receive a grade. Also, don’t leave any questions blank as there is no penalty for
guessing.

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 10 of 30

Section B: Written Answers (50%)
Answer ANY FIVE of the following questions on the pages of the examination script. Each of
the five questions you answer is worth 10% of the final exam grade.

Clearly indicate the question numbers answered in the table on the bottom on the front page
of this exam script.

CLEARL Y PRINT both your name and I.D. number on every page that you want marked. Be
sure you also indicate which questions you’re answering in the table on the bottom of the very
first page of this exam. Without this information, the grade for your answers will not be
recorded!

Use ONLY the sheet of paper provided for each question. You MAY write on the back.
Read the questions very carefully as they usually contain several parts that must all be addressed
in your answer. Carefully organize your answers, and present them in a clear, logical essay
format. Writing in point form is not encouraged as it is very difficult for you to convey your
level of understanding of the question in this way. Also, unorganized "information dumps" on
keywords found in the question result in VERY low grades!

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5,2012

Name: ——————————–1.

Page 11 of 30

I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ __

The Systems Approach is often used in the study of Physical Geography. Explain what the
Systems Approach actually is, and what the major components of the Systems Approach
are in the context of Physical Geography. Give an example of a system in Physical
Geography and explain how it is studied via the Systems Approach,

Geography 1F91

Wednesday, December 5,2012

Page 12 of 30

Geography IF91

NaIlle: _______________________________
2,

Page 13 of 30

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Compute the net radiation under both of the following conditions.

Noon

Albedo of grass surface (%):
20%
25°C
Temperature of grass surface:
Sky radiation emitting temperature: 15°C
800 Wm- 2
Shortwave Radiation at noon (Q):

Midnight Temperature of grass surface:
Sky radiation emitting temperature:
If the air temperature is 15°C and the
relative humidity of the air 1.0 m
above the grass covered surface is 50%
at midnight, compute whether dew will
form.

80

t70

rn
rn

60
50

o:::~

~~

aK’ (units of W m-2)

M =

a =

where

a..:Q

z
0

~

5,67 x 10-8 W m- 2 K4

::J

~
rn

K = DC+273

1/

t:-

::J!ll

offi

I

l::-

UJ

0:::

I

l-

UJ

0:::

::J

a..

Rn = Q – aQ – Mow + Min

8°C
5°C

40
30
l-

20

/

10

o

-30

-20

L..—"

v

/

,I

d

-10

./

0

,I

10

TEMPERATURE

Grass Surface
Grass
Surface
Temp.
(DC)

Grass
es
(mb)

Air

Air
Temp.
(OC)

Air
es
(mb)

@

R.H.
(%)

1.0 m
Air
ea = es x R.H.
(mb)

Vapour
Pressure
Gradient
es – ea
(mb m- I )

I

/
,I

01

20

30

40

(ee)

Direction
of
Gradient
(up or
down)

Evaporation
or
Condensation

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5,2012

Page 14 of 30

Geography IF91

Page 15 of 30

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Name: ____________________________ I.D.#: ___________________
3.

Consider the following conditions for St. Catharines on a hot summer day:
Surface temperature downtown
30°C
2SoC
Dew point temperature
A few kilometres away over the surface of Lake Ontario, the following conditions exist:
lSoC
Surface temperature of the lake
Air temperature 1.0 m above the lake
2SoC
Relative humidity of the air
20%
For both locations assume an Environmental Temperature Lapse Rate of lSoC 1000 m’l
Perform the necessary calculations to answer the following questions:
– Will the air over St. Catharines be stable, unstable, or conditionally unstable?
– If cumulus clouds form in the case of unstable conditions, at what height will they begin
to form, and what will be their base temperature?
– Will there be evaporation over the lake to provide the moisture to form these clouds?
80

In the context of the establishment of a
convection cell and its associated
pressure gradients, explain why these
conditions are favourable for the
establishment of a lake breeze to bring
moist air from over the lake in over St.
Catharines.

I:-

70

i
i.

,

l-

w

0:::
:::J

60

w
0:::
a..

50

U)
U)

I-

o:::~

:::Jf!!
Oro

a..,Q

:g;~

V

l:-

40

z~

o

~

~

TLCL = To – (H LCL x DALR)
H
LCL

= 1000 x T0 -Tdew
(
8.2

J

30
l-

,I

20
10

o

-30

-20

I

/

V

./

~

V

-10
0
10
TEMPERATURE

20
rC)

30

40

where:
TLcL
HLCL
To
Tdew

= Temperature of the parcel at the height of the Lifting Condensation Level, °C
= Height of the Lifting Condensation Level, in metres
= Surface temperature, °C
= Dew Point temperature, °C

DALR = Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate = 10°C 1000 m’l
SALR = Saturated (wet) Adiabatic Lapse Rate = SoC 1000 m’l

Geography 1F91

Lake Surface
Lake
Surface
Temp,
(OC)

Lake

es
(mb)

Page 16 of 30

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Air

Air
Temp.

Air

(Oe)

(mb)

es

@

R.H.

(%)

Air

Vapour
Pressure
Gradient

ea = es x R.H.

es – ea

1.0 m

(mb)

(mb mol)

Direction
of
Gradient
(up or
down)

Evaporation
or
Condensation

Geography 1F91

Wednesday, December 5,2012

NaDle: _______________________________
4.

Page 17 of 30

I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ ____

Draw a diagram of an idealized low pressure cyclonic storm system showing and labelling
the following:
i)

ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

center of low pressure
cold and warm fronts
isobars
precipitation areas
cloud types
wind directions

Outline the typical sequence of weather change"s associated with the passage of a low
pressure cyclonic storm system at a location in Southern Ontario, assuming the center of
low pressure is ‘passing to the north of your location.

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5,2012

Page 18 of 30

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

NaDle: _______________________________
5.

Page 19 of 30

I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Explain what happens during the phase changes of water from solid to liquid and liquid to
gas from an energy perspective.
How does this process act to intensify a tropical cyclonic storm during its development
phase to potentially result in a hurricane?

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 20 of 30

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5,2012

Name: ——————————–6.

Page 21 of 30

I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ __

By means of a well labelled diagram, outline the different global atmospheric pressure
belts found in the northern hemisphere and explain why they exist where they do.
Describe the characteristic weather each of these belts is responsible for and explain why
this is so.

Geography 1F91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 22 of 30

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

NaDle: _______________________________
7.

Page 23 of 30

I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ ____

Wind speeds generally increase as height increases throughout the Troposphere. Explain
why this is so from the perspective of pressure gradients. The jet stream is a special case of
this phenomenon. Fully explain how and where the jet stream forms and explain why the
wind speeds are so much higher.

Geography 1F91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 24 of 30

Geography 1F91

Name:
8.

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

———————————

Page 25 of 30

I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Fully explain how and why an urban heat island would form during a hot summer day.
Explain how the formation of this urban heat island results in the associated localized
winds.

Geography 1F91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 26 of 30

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Page 27 of 30

Name: ——————————— I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ __
9.

Outline the life cycle of a typical convective thunderstorm. Explain how the different
stages of this life cycle develop. Explain how thunderstorms can be considered both a
matter flow system and an energy flow system

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5,2012

Page 28 of 30

Geography IF91

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Name: ———————————–10.

Page 29 of 30

I.D. #: _ _ _ _ _ _ __

By virtue of its location at lOON latitude and the influence of the North East Trade Winds
and the Doldrums Low Pressure System, Costa Rica should have a Koppen classification of
Tropical Rainforest Climate (Ai). As the following map illustrates, this is not the case.
Explain why this pattern of differing climate zones exists over such a small area, fully
explaining the processes that occur to result in this pattern.

/
/
t

N

I
COSTA RICA
CLIMATES

I. I

Warm Dry

1 : Warm Humid
~ Mild

Cool Humid

Cool Dry

Pacific
Ocean

Geography 1F91

Wednesday, December 5,2012

Page 30 of 30

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