Gender, Crime, and Deviance What is deviance? What is crime

| October 22, 2018

Review materials below and attached . Identify three prison population trends. Why do you think these trends have occurred? What do you think can be done to alleviate the situation to reduce recidivism and ultimately the future size of the US prison population? Write three fully paragraphs explicitly utilizing below and attached material. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/criminal-justice/locked-up-in-america/michelle-alexander-a-system-of-racial-and-social-control/http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2012/us-incarceration.aspxhttp://www.prb.org/Articles/2012/us-incarceration.aspxhttp://digitalcommons.northgeorgia.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1035&context=papersandpubshttp://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penaltyhttp://www.pbs.org/now/shows/419/http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/419/video.html.828125px; overflow: hidden; word-break: break-word; color: rgb(61, 61, 61); height: 2550px;”>Gender, Crime, and DevianceWhat is deviance? What is crime? The sociological "take" on these concepts isoften quite different than the lay person’s definition. If we take a cross-culturalcomparative approach, you will see that definitions of deviance and crime vary a greatdeal from culture to culture. Social factors will influence our likelihood of engagingin certain criminal activities and will influence how we are perceived and punishedfrom crossing societal norms.Labeling and Social DevianceHoward Becker and others have helped us to understand that becoming "deviant"involves a process of labeling. We must first be recognized as deviant to be labeleddeviant. This will often involve people with power within social institutions…..thepolice, judges, school authorities, etc. The process of labeling makes differences inpower visible. Some have more power than others to enforce their definitions ofdeviance and label offenders. Class, gender, sexual orientation and ethnicity all comeinto play in how we are labeled and punished for real or imagined transgressions. Forexample, how are men and women punished differently for prostitution? Crossdressing? Rape?Feminist Perspectives on DeviancePrevious studies on women’s deviance lacked accurate information and research.They rested on stereotypical assumptions about women’s natures. The feministperspective challenges us to think about what constitutes deviance, the impacts ofsexist labels, and the importance of social context. The importance of gender, class,ethnicity, age, and sexual orientation will influence the causes and consequences ofdeviant behavior.Feminist criminology focuses on how women’s subordinate position in societyaffects crime. For example, females are more likely to be reported as runaways(often fleeing from sexual abuse). Female runaways are more likely than malerunaways to be picked up by police. The subordinate position of women in the U.S.also impacts victimization rates. Seventy percent of all female homicide victims inindustrial countries are American. A female in the U.S. is five times more likely thanin England, and three times more likely than in Canada. The murderer is likely to bean ex-boyfriend, husband, or other intimate.Demographic DataMales commit more violent crime than females. Some argue that girls arecontrolled though subtle mechanisms, including learning that violence is incompatiblewith the meaning of their gender. In 2001, males accounted for 83% of arrests forviolent crimes. Many sociologists have argued that socialization plays a key role inthese differences. Some contend that women are socialized to suppress aggression,while dominance and power are key to dominant ideals of masculinity. Connect to thesite below, and view the short clip on "Tough Guise".http://www.mediaed.org/videos/MediaGenderAndDiversity/ToughGuise/#The monetary value of female involvement in theft, property damage, and illegaldrugs is typically less than for similar offenses committed by males. A growingnumber of women have become involved in traditionally male criminal activities suchas gang-related crime and drug use.Race/ethnicity, class and age of course come into play. The highest arrest ratesinvolve individuals under the age of 25. Crimes by people in their teens and earlytwenties tend to be property crimes while the median age for those who commit moreserious crimes such as aggravated assault and homicide is late 20s. Minorities aredisproportionately represented in the official crime statistics; African Americans are13% of all property index offenses, and 33% of the crime index total. Black malesbetween the ages of 20 and 39 make up about one-third of the prison population. Thehigh arrest rates for minorities may be a consequence of institutional bias. Forexample, Blacks are sent to prison at a rate 8.2 times higher than for Whites.For some additional interesting statistics, connect to:http://www.fbi.gov/homepage.htm (the FBI site for crime statistics)http://www.actabuse.com/dvstats.html (domestic violence statistics)http://www.rainn.org/ (Rape Abuse and Incest National Network)http://www.ojp.usdoj.go/vawo (Violence Against Women Office)

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