Each answer should be not more than about *

| October 22, 2018

May.15th lecture 4
First punic war: 264-241
–Result: 20 years of war
–Would need sth special from Rome or Carthage
to win
–Carthage: mercenaries, but good navy
–Rome: excellent army, no
well-established naval force
–Result: statement
Trireme
–3 banks of oars
–Corvus (boarding ramp)
Quinquereme is heavier, 5 banks of oars

Naval warfare in ancient world
n Rams
n Immobillisation
–roman idea: make it a land
battle, on water

–board using corvus/raven (but problems)

–grapnel

–physically seize enemy ships, or ram them
–armoured
sailors cannot swim very well
Polybius, on the corvus
–Roman shipbuilding
program-superhuman effort
–But now, had to learn how to
fight at sea-no real experience
–Would have plenty of upsets,
errors… (storms too)
— in the meantime:
–256: 2 consulsà
Africa; ambitious, war on Carthaginian territory
–Plunder of countryside; 1 cos.
Home, Other remained:
–Marcus atilius regulus
–255: defeated Carthaginians;
camped at Tunis
–Negotiations, rejected by Rome
–Spartan mercenary, Xanthippus-
replaced local commanders
–Romans crushed; regulus
captured
–romans crushed; regulus
captured
–With regulus- what is true and
what is legend?
–Deal with humiliation by
mythologizing it!
–Ex. Romans defeated b/c of
massive snake
–Legend- in captivity until 250
–Gave parole to Carthaginians;
sent to Rome to negotiate
–In his speech to senate- urged
no surrender
–Returned to Carthageà
met his end
–Regulus: reluctant here,
duty> personal need
–source: Horace-reliable?
–Ode 3.5; titled, no surrender

–Warning to lax romans of his own day

–Holds up regulus as ideal model
–Intensely
patriotic in period of civil war
–Regulus’ death
–Xanthippus, and the leaky ship
–All of this: Rome’s north
African invasion- not a success
–More setbacks for Rome
–254: fleet to Africa, rescue
survivors
–Defeated Carthaginian fleet,
but then massive storm
–Romans massive effort at
Panormus-Sicily
–250: lucius caecilius metellus,
army, crushed Carthaginian attack
–Huge triumph in rome, with 100
elephants
–But then chickens…
Drepanum, 249, western coast of
sicily
Publius Claudius pulcher
–Frustrated by progress of siege
of Carthaginian base at lilibaeum (western Sicily)
Decided to take offensive
Auspieces: the sacred chickens
Let them drink, since they don’t
want to eat
Result: romans suffered horrible
defeat
Pulcher accused of sacrilege for
killing scared chickens
–War dragged on to an end with
reverses/benefits for each side
–241: Romans finally achieved
naval victory, off Sicily
–Carthaginian commander: Hamilcar
– peace treaty
–Indemnity: triggered mercenary
revolt
–The “truceless war” – savage
–Rome took opportunity: Sardinia
–Carthage shattered
–Sent Hamilcar Barca (father of Hannibal)
to Spain – rebuild
èWould
lead to new struggle

Consequences of the war
Four main consequences
1. Carthage lost Sicily, Sardinia,
paid reparations

–Rome now held territory outside of Italian peninsula
–Lead
to garrisons on Sicily, Sardinia and also Corsica
–Needed
administrators: praetorshipexpanded, sent overseas
2. widescale change in conduct of
warfare
–Previously
Rome followed seasonal pattern: some experience
–Now
consistently kept armies in field all year round
–Polybius
– Romans ambitious more daring, thinking of conquest
3. Rome now a naval power
–Needed
too for control of ex. Corsica, Sardinia
–Allowed
Rome to project power outside Italy
4. Significant increase in public
spending: ships, armies
–Army
had logistical needs
–Spawned
rise of ‘contractor class’ – the publicani, paid by the state to build, supply,
house, procure, etc.
–Currency
expanded, more issues: coins now also used to advertise Roman power (ex.
Coin of prow of ship) –propaganda

The second Punic war 218-201
The triumph of duty over individualism
–Defining event of the roman republic
before the civil wars
–Significant and far-reaching
consequences
–Main sources: Polybius, Livy
–Livy
–Lived
59 BC –AD 17-200 years after events f
–From
Padua
–Knew
personally Rome’s first emperor, Augustus
–Whole
work: cover beginning of Romeà own
day ex. 753-19, in 142 books- only 36 survive
–Livy looked to various traditions
–Oratory and fine writing: Cicero a
model
–Livy famously lazy, would not cross
Rome to see a document
–Sources? Other writers- make major use
of Polybius
–Selected and compiled info to suit his
agenda
–Often never mentions who he is using
–Livy writing after gut-wrenching civil
war
–Aim: react to this dislocation by
concentrating on values which made Rome great
–Superior
virtue, morality
–Nobility
–Character
and courage of Romans
–Other sources
–Hannibal’s court historians – lost
–Letters
and treaties, copied by Polybius

Writings of Scipio family?
Major players in story… dramatis
personae
The Scipios
The Barcids
–NB: multiple Scipios
–Publius
Cornelius Scipio
–Consul
218; died 211
–Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio ‘Calvus’ (the
bald)
–Brother
of Publius Cornelius Scipio
–Consul
222, died 211
–Piblius Cornelius scipio ‘africanus’
–Son
of Publius Cornelius Scipio, nephew of Gnaeus
–Ultimate
victor in second Punic war
–The other tem- the Barcids
–Hamilcar Barca, general of 1st
Punic war, d. 228, Spain
–Father
of Hannibal
–Husdrubal “the fair”
–Son-
in law of Hamilcar, d. 221
–Husdrubal Barca, general
–Brother
of Hannibal, d 207, Italy
–Mago Barca, general
–Brother
of Hannibal, d 203, on board ship
Hannibal- not a crazed demon
–Had read memoirs of Pyrrhus
–Barcid dynasty in Spain – Hellenistic
style dynasty
–Closer to Greek king than monster
–Adept at Greco-Roman propaganda
–Temple of Melqart (Hercules) in Grades
(Cadiz, Spain)
–12labours of Hercules: drove oxen of
Geryon though Spain and Gaul over the Alps
–Cacus (giant) on Aventine hill- steal
oxen, Hercules killed him
à Punishment of Rome – grounded in Greek
myth
àPosed as liberator of oppressed Greeks
in Sicily, Italy
–And: epic journey- like Alexander?
–War broken down in phases:
1, background to war- Barcids in Spain
2, period between 218-216: Roman defeats
3. period between 216-207: revival
–War
in Italy, propaganda campaigns by Hannibal
–War
in Spain
–War
in Africa
And in this: the triumph of duty, but …
the rise of the individual… Scipio Africanus
Background- the interwar years, 241-218
–End of 1st Punic war
–Hamilcar surrendered Mt. Eryx in Siciy
–Mass resentment
–And ‘Truceless war’ (mercenary
revolt)- future damage
–Barcids powerful, choose Spain, new
lease on life
–Mines. Manpower, new beginning – nova Carthage
èSpain
would revive Carthage
–228: Hamilcar dead; Hasdrubal “the
fair” took over
–At some point: Hasdrubal, treaty with
Rome
–Boundary of interests: river Ebro
–clues: Romans preoccupied with Gauls
(“Italian Celts”)
–And also: war in lllyria (pirates,
death of ambassador- and now new protectorates)
–Lllyrian war= first protectorates in
Greece
–Romans at lsthmian Games
–So: Roman policy – curb Carthaginians
in Spain, secure lllyria, hammer Gauls?
–Before, during, after treaty- fateful decision
–Some kind of agreement, based in
fides, with Saguntum
–Hannibal attacked Saguntum, south of
Ebro river- not in violation of treaty
–But – quandary for Romans
–Friendship bounded by fides with Rome
–What to do? Honor treaty to far away
people, or let them face fate?
–If go to war, could trigger wider war
–In do nothing, would allow Hannibal to
get stronger
–Or- part of the plan all along
–The polish Guarantee, 1939
–218: Saguntum surrendered
–Roman Senate: dithered; delegatin to
Hannibal
–Eventually, Roman envoysà
Carthatge
–Livy: Hannibal urged senate in
Carthage to give up their treaty to provoke a war
èSurrender,
sack of saguntm= plays into faous story
– Hannibal ‘oath to hate Rome
–War not roman fault, Hannibal’s falur’
–Carthaginians; rejected Roman demands
and war began 218
–Roman response: both consuls
dispatched for war
–Sent
Publius Cornelius Scipio (cos. 218; father of Scipio Africanus) to Spain
–Other
cos. Tiberius Sempronius Lougus, sent to Sicily: target, Africa, and Carthage
–Which did Hannibal do
–Understood
his own strengths, weaknesses
–Would invade Italy, over the Alps (new
Hercules/ Alexander)
–Very dangerous endeavor
–Navigation

–Food
–lack
of mechanized transport
–Precedence-
Alexander the Great, Khawak pass in Afghanistan
–Hannival would face huge problems, take
many losses of men, animals, equipment
–Some allies deserted, rather than
cross Alps
–Hostile tribes in Alps would add to
problems
–Scipio: would contest Hannibal’s
crossing of phone river, southern France
Unsuccessful
After this, way open to Alps
Again, problems with allies, more,
soldiers: more afraid of Alpine crossing than fighting Romans
Livy: took 5 months for entire journey;
15 days, for Alpa
Considerable losses
Cape lacinium inscription: 20,000
infantry, 6,000 cavalry- tiny
Floored Romans
First confrontation
Ticinus River, 218 BC, northern Italy
Hannibal: suborn Gauls, fight for him-
liberator of Italy

Ticinus 218
May.20th Lecture 5
-Livy
Trebbia 218
Romans did best, but sempronius should
have waited
Tired; elephants; great pressure on
line; December rain muddled thins
Ambush by Mago
Romans were broken, although troops and
both consuls escaped
But, major military disaster
After the Trebbia, 218
Romans shocked
Enemy in Italy
Two engagements lost, significant parts
of army destroyed
But, what did romans have?
Allies
Resources
Product of early years, wars of
expansion, conquest of Italy
Polybius: Romans had huge manpower
reserves
Reports census figures for 225: 700K (or
634K)
Of Romans alone :
250000 adult males qualified for infantry
service
23000 adult males of ‘equestrian’ standing
–cavalry
table illustrates sources
other clues: the bronze plate at temple
of Hera Lacinia at Croto in S. Italy (Cape Lacinium): 20K infantry, 6K cavalry,
copied by Ploybius
Hannibal: major disadvantages
For Hannibal to win
Not destroy Rome
Crush it on battlefield – make peace (
norm in Hellenistic world)
Manpower advantage? Use propaganda …
Dismantle alliances
..nearly worked
217 new year, new consuls, new defeats
consuls for 217
Gnaeus Servilius Geminus (Servilius)
Gaius Flaminius Nepos (Flaminius)
Better job? Not to be
Why ?
Flaminius: populist, opposed Senate
Tried to curtail financial activities of
senators
Showed lack of respect for mos maiorum:
customs of the elders (i.e. respect your forefathers, they are older and wiser)

Tension between old and young a major theme in
Livy
They were right… would die in a very
famous Roman disaster
Livy uses Flaminius’ poor character to
explain his fate

Sempronius: showed hubris, lost

Flaminius: did not show Senate, elders.
What did Flaminius do?
Mad chase after Hannibal
No reconnaissance
Walked into trap
217 lake trasimene
Hannibal: well- prepared position;
plenty of time
Forced romans to fight facing lake or
mountains
Blocked exits: could only leave by
narrow paths
Romans advanced onto plain; no security;
did not notice Carthaginians; false camp to lure romans forward
Problems with fog
Romans in marching order; weapons slung;
not ready for battle
Attacked from all sides
Flaminius killed
Very serious
Romans in shock; consul dead; exits
blocked
Many drowned in the lake
Livy: 6000 escaped, only to surrender
Effect in Rome: terror at news of
consul’s death
Worse to come
Time of great emergency: what would
Senate do?

217 emergency measures
Livy
‘the defence of Italy had faied – the war
would now be at home to save the city’
senate appointed famous dictator

quintus fabius maximus

cunctator, the delayer
QFM emerges as literary foil against
upstart, impetuous, young politicians
Later ally: cato the elder (famous
conservative)
QFM’s strategy: harass supply lines;
pick fights carefully; avoid a repeat of Trebbia or Lake Trasimene
Meanwhile:
Servilius (other consul) helped to
defend Rome: implicit comparison with Flaminius
Livy: was QFM’s strategy working?
Frustrating for some not to fight. E.g.
minucius, master of cavalry (2nd in command) for QFM
Elected as co-dictator, nearly loses
life
For Livy: minucius recalls Flaminius,
Sempronius: reckless, impetuous, arrogant, young, and stupid.
But QFM’ s strategy working

Tensions between Minucius and QFM
Livy & Polybius : character couplets

Old, wise vs young, foolish
Patient vs reckless
Previews: optimates vs populares in late
Roman society
Eventually QFM’s position ended: return
to consuls
Results? Good for Rome
Character: sold estates to ransom POWs
No major disasters, but people wanted
victory.

216 disaster
216 quintus fabius maximus retired; new
consuls

gaius terentius varro (varro)

Lucius Aemilius Paullus (Aemelius Paullus)
Varro: like sempronius, like Flaminius
Unpopular with patricians
Populist, left- wing
Anti-conservative
Did not like QFM

Aemilius paullus = opposite of varro –
political opponent older, wiser, ex-consul (IIIyrian war)
He and Varro are like gladiators:
competitors
Livy uses sour relations – presage a new
disaster
Away from senate, romans recruiting new
armies
But new omens

Statues weep blood

Cold springs become hot

And worse….

Warro did have initial success
Like sempronius….cocky, bold
Aroused in him the passion to defeat
Hannibal: make his name
Hannibal: knew he could lure varro into
an ambush
Use rome’s aggressive/impetuous
leadership against them
Eventually the two sides met at cannae,
in Apulia
Before Adrianople (AD 378) this was the
most notorious roman disaster in history
Aemilius paullus was killed in battle
Problem: rome’s maniples, bad leadership

More shook for rome: a consul killed,
80000 (?) soldiers killed in one day: eight legions and their allies – the size
of four entire consular armies
What else?
Servilius geminus, ex-consul, killed
Minucius, ex-master of horse to QFM,
killed
A large number of senators who had
volunteered to fight.. lost in the battle
Varro? He escaped
Survivors- punishment battalions
Famous escapee- scipio
For perspective : Ammianus Marcellinus,
on Adrianople (AD 378)
Death of emperor valens
Destruction of eastern field army
What did Hannibal do
Did not follow up by marching on rome
But: did he intend to capture it?
But the victory was, in any case, total

Cannae: had some important consequences
Some roman allies deserted them
(hennibal’s strategy)
Anti-roman sentiment
e.g. capua, treaty with carthage: would
share Italy as part of a Carthaginian protectorate
Tarentum, thurii- defected
Sicily: hiero of Syracuse died; Hannibal
fomented an uprising there – serious

Romans: cancelled festivls looked to
religious rites to appease the gods
Buried alive Greeks and Gauls
Fabius pictor ( famous roman historian)
sent to the oracle at Delphi
What did the gods want the romans to do
New legions
For the first time, boys under 17; 8000
slaves as well
How did rome get through all this

Strength of character

Loyalty of the majority of their allies

Support and courage of the people

Indefatigable senate: never gave up
Out of this calamity, rome’s identity
would be forged

Restoration and revival: 216-202
Rome rebuilds
New problems, but new leaders: including
Scipio Africanus

Would undertake the reconquest of Italy

Fight actions abroad, in spain and Africa

New tactics, new legions, new army

And threat: to heart of state
216-206
Hannibal: wanted rome’s allies
Achieved capua; failed elsewhere
Behind this: factional politics
In rome: a new dictator
Disasters continued: e.g. consul-elect
killed on campaign- Lucius postumius (L.23.24)

So: rome facing not just Hannibal, but
multiple enemies – but still they keep going
Stories in livy show: rome’s hold on
Italy thenuous

Hannibal: plans elsewhere
215: new front opened in IIIyria,
against Macedonia ( 1st Macedonian war)
Hannibal and Philip V of macedon
Treaty copied by Polybius: curb Roman
power, not destroy it

Slowly, rome asserting itself

Rewards loyal allies; punish the ones that strayed

Campania

Sicily

Sardinia
War much wider in scope than anything
seen so far

213: rome began reconquest of Campania:
capua
capua: a terrible revenge
leaders executed

but even now, other problems
running out of cash
time of crisis- senate gave up property,
gold, silver
allies gave all they had
just enough to keep going
eventually, romans recovered Campania .

209: QFM captured and sacked Tarentum
30000 inhabitants: sold
capua and Tarentum showed: terrible
price of defiance
so by 209: capua, Campania, Tarentum,
Sardinia: all quiet
in sicily, Claudius Marcellus
siege of Syracuse famous: defence
orchestrated by Archimedes
military ideas – some seem to have
worked, others perhaps

finally, Marcellus prevailed
Archimedes famously killed by a roman
soldier
His legacy?
Archimedes palimpsest
Restoration and revival: 216- 202
Syracuse sacked brutally
Romans took agrigentum, other major city

Corn supply secured, sicily pacified

The final years
Spain
Long a sideshow to Italy
212: roman forces, led by scipo(father)
scipio killed; gnaeus scipio (calvus)
quickly followed
great shock
again, Romans able to take stock,
regroup: on the verge of annihilation, they survived
Romans still lacked a consular
commander…
who would take scipio’s place
Livy… no- one put name forward:
Another desperate situation: needs a bold
solution
Scipio
Too young; lacked experience to be a
consul
Major break with tradition
Elected as a private citizen with
imperium
What was scipio like?
Very pious; a performer; and
semi-legendary in his own lifetime
211: scipo went to spain
used his reputation, family authority,
to help him
210/209: captured new carthage
daring raid – soldiers crossed lake –
myth, helped by Neptune
follow up battles: llipa, baecula
major theme: new tactics, new
flexibility, new abilities
and, diplomacy: suborn massinissa,
syphax, numidian allies
208, at baecula – similar tactics
defeated Hasdrubal, fled to Italy
scipio – roman army now instrument to
beat Hannibal
specifically

competent generalship
innovative tacitics
use of cavalry (Laelius)
maniples as independent operators
Carthaginians: looked for a decisive
endgame in Italy
208 Roman consuls were Marcellus ( of
Syracuse fame) and crispinus
at venusia, in Apulia, han

May.22nd
Lecture 6
Restoration and revival: 216-202
The final years
New dictator: Manlius
New consuls elected:
207: combined forces to faced Hasdrubal.
In northern Italy
Livy: dramatic evocation of scene
àforced
march of picked troops, to get to Hasdrubal (Hannibal brother) before message
could get to Hannibal
Hannibal stranded in S. Italy: defeat a
matter of time
Could not get reinforcements
No easy access to supplies
Could not duplicate Rome’s alliance
system
Could not detach allies permanently
Romans ascendant
Looked to the gods: went to Delphi: and
then brought cult of Magna Mater, The
Great Mother, to Rome
205-201
Scipio finally elected as consul in 205
Plunder: nearly 15,000 lbs of silver
Another result of the wars: enrichment
and, a further direct consequence:
the need to keep successful generals in field
—Pro-consuls,
pro-praetors
—Recognition
of need to change system
—Annual
commands counter-productive
—More
consuls, praetors needed
Scipio nursing great ambition
Asked to be sent to Sicily: to get him
to Africa
But, QFM
—Youthful
arrogance of Varro, Flaminius, Sempronius, Minucius
—Naked
ambition
—Dangerous
recklessness
Scipio finally got his way
Senate hampered him – withheld troops,
money
What did he do?
—Volunteers,
Cannae legions
—Fleet
from Rome’s allies
—Took
them to Sicily
Africa:
Scipio ravaged countryside
With Massinissa, beat Carthaginian
levies
Peace agreed, then scupper
Hannibal recalled, along with Mago
‘Livy, 30.20: Hannibal furious’
Before the final flight at Zama:
Livy has the 2 meet: a very famous
speech
Hannibal
–Appeals
to Scipio, compares himself to him
–Hannibal
old, Scipio young
–Hannibal
wiser: needs peace
–Lost
his brothers; defending his native city; asking for peace
Scipio
–Carthage
is the aggressor
–Too
late to ask for peace
–You’re
finished
Scipio and Hannibal prepared their
forces
àScipio innovative
àDifference at Zama- Laelius and
Massinissa, with cavalry
‘Hannibal lost his first battle’
Zama a resounding Roman success
Scipio – treated Hannibal well, let him
stay in politics
Carthage sued for peace in the aftermath
Negotiations – including Philip V- Mac.
Soldiers at Zama
And the Romans told Philip:
The answer received from the roman
senate was anything but favorable. They were told that their king was looking
for war, and if he went on as he was doing, he would very soon find it.
An omen of things to come
Eventually, Carthage made peace
Terms harsh
—Gave
up elephants, warships, most of army
—Scipio
burned the fleet in vies of the Carthaginians
—Allied
deserters beheaded; Roman deserters crucified
—Huge
indemnity: crippled Carthage for good
Roman allies (ex. Massinissa) were
rewarded
Scipio: triumphant return to Rome
What did he do?
Scipio set an ominous precedent
Paid a huge war bounty of 123,000 lbs of
silver to his troops
Idea: loyalty to commander, not to state
Took epithet “Africanus”
Scipio: 3rd c. BC celebrity –
imperator, a victor with assent of the gods
Dangerous idea:
—Loyalty
to commander > loyalty to state
—Beginning
of individualism > duty
—Shape
of things to come
Hannibal:
—Eventually
fell out in Carthage
—Romans
came for him… he fled to Antiochus, Hellenistic ruler of Syria
Consequences
of second Punic War
Carthage was crippled
Rome: new, stronger version of itself:
on brink of Med domination, fuelled by militaristic ideology and flush with a
hard-won victory
All overseas Carthaginian territory now
Roman – and new admin needed – so new praetors, new campaigning to pacify
Spain, new settlements: definite expansion
Rome’s constitution changing: new
praetors, pro-consuls, pro-praetors: the beginnings of the imperial
administration
Rome’s reputation increased
In 216, Rome was on brink of extinction.
How was this avoided?
–Resourced
(think Pyrrhus)
–Allies
(think Pyrrhus)
–Spirit

–Courage
–Good
commanders
–Core
of resilience in the Senate, the people: the SPQR
The 2nd Punic War is a major
event in understanding how Rome became an Empire later on, and understanding
Roman ‘Identity’ – confident, militaristic
Livy:
–Rome
defeated Hannibal by:
–Staying
strong
–Honoring
the gods
–Staying
true to the state
–Following
its moral principles
–Rome
was threatened by young, arrogant, impious men
–L.
admires Africanus, he sees in him some of the traits of his own time…
‘Starship troopers’
Tension: duty vs. life, liberty and the
pursuit of happiness
Society of citizens and civilians

Roman imperialism
Expansion and creation of a world empire
Deliberate?
Accidental?
Combination?
Imperialism in 2014 has an image problem
– can we avoid a negative judgment?
Imperium
Would Romans understand our idea of
imperialism?
Roman expansion: deliberate acquisition
of territory for commercial gain?
Land-grab rush incompetition with
others?
Think of France, England, Belgium,
Germany, in Africa, for ex…
Romans would probably be perplexed if we
assigned our idea of imperialism onto them
How should we understand it?
Influential perspectives:
V.I. Lenin: Imperialism. The highest state of Capitalism
Come down to “Defensive Imperialism” vs.
“Expansionism”
Accidental vs. Deliberate
Take a look at each
Defensive Imperialism
Until recently: dominant idea
Wars conducted in self-defense
Can we find justification in ancient
texts? Sure!
Theme here:
Romans concerned about aggressive stance
of neighbors ex. Carthage
Defensive imperialism thesis very
popular: ground

Idea held sway until 1970s
New ideas
W.V. Harris: war and imperialism in republican Rome, 327-70 BC
Basic idea: Rome accustomed to
continuous war… benefits from war accrued, kept war going
Cf. Schumpeter… keep fighting, keep
winning, keep fighting to keep winning…
Expansionism?
Evidence?
Art, slaves, influence, power, money,
land… all came with victory in war
Evidence in ancient sources? Of course!
Expansionism? Or Accidental/ Defensive?
So: which idea do we favor?
Harris’ideas:
—Romans
placed value on martial activities
—Cursus honorum included vital military
steps
—Supreme
civil authority = supreme military authority
—Warfare
central to functioning of state
What about moder historians, their
views?
Mommsen: 19th cent. German…
interested in German nationalism
Saw Romans: united Italy – like Germany
was being united
Gave Roman conquest a positive spin
And Harris? Deeply affected by Vietnam War
– overseas adventures are bad, and lead to serious problems
Difficult to know which 1 we should
favor
Rome: bad enemies – Gauls, Carthage
90 serious defeats recorded in the republic
Almost became extinct in 2nd
P.W.
Romans: can we understand their fear,
apprehension? Does this justify pre-emptive strikes?
But…history of late republic is full of ambitious
men, looking for military glory – Pompey, Caesar, Sulla, Marius: we will meet
them all
No clear answer… some case studies!
Background:
Main powers in Mediterranean
Created in aftermath of Alexander’s
death in 323
‘Hellenistic’ kingdoms
East (Iraq/Iran – all the way to
Afghanistan, India): Seleucids (after Seleucus Nikator)
Macedonia: Antigonids (after Antigonus
II ‘Kneecap’)
Egypt: Ptolemies (after Ptolemy Soter)
Seleucus, Antigonus, Ptolemy: all
generals of (or descended from generals of ) Alexander’s army who founded
kingdoms after 323 BC
Rome is a tiny speck on the world map
Entering a world of great antiquity:
Will conquer almost all of it
In the conquest, Rome itself will be
conquered – change in centre of gravity
Rome – fade out and become irrelevant
Revolution – Republic to monarchy
Trade; fame, news of victories over Hannibal
spread by Greek traders
Wars in Illyria before 2nd
Punic War
Interaction with Philip V, of Macedon
(Antigonid)
During 2nd Punic War, Romans
and Rhodes, Pergamum
Pergamum: old kingdom in western Turkey
Rhodes: powerful island state, south of
Turkey
à2nd Punic War leads to war
with Macedon
The second Macedonian War: 200-196 BC
Rhodes trading centre, emporium,
crossroads East/West
Rumor: Philip V (Antigonid) of
Macedonia, Antiochus the Great of Syria (Seleucid) joining forces…
Threatened Rhodes and Pergamumàcomplained
to Rome
Invitation to intervene: looks defensive
Romans were alarmed
Remember: Romans and Philip, treaty with
Carthage
Why did Rome attack Philip?
—Macedon
is close to Italy
—Concerned
about security of Italian peninsula
Romans defeated Philip at Cynoscephalae
– “Dog’s head pass” in 197
But… actions afterwards are illuminating
Romans did not take any territory
Architect of roman victory is Titus
Quinctius Flaminimus – famous admirer of Greek culture and learning
196, TQF: ‘frees the Greeks’ – idea that
Rome had protected them from Philip
Were the Greeks really free? No
Or a protectorate, under influence of
Rome?
Clients – owned their patrons – the
Romans
—Wider
version of traditional patron – client relationship typical in Rome
Romans had other thoughts on Greece…good
place for espionage… keep an eye on Hellenistic monarchs… provide a buffer
Romans as patronsàwould
guarantee further interference
Roman operations in Greece
Factional politics:
Achaean
league (Peloponnese: Corinth; Polybius)
–Threatened
by Sparta
–Occasional
friends of Macedonia
Aetolian
league (NW Greece)
–Friends
of Rome
–Anti-Macedonian
After
197, Achaeans won more than Aetolians
Aetolians
looked to change status quo
195/4: Flamininus helped crush Sparta
194: Flamininus back in Rome
194: Aetolians: opportunity – cancel
TQF’s settlement
Champion: Antiochus III “The Great” –
invitation
Antiochus: ally of Philip; sheltered Hannibal
192: alliance with Aetolian league; army
of 10,000 sent to Greece; became commander of Aetolians
191: immediate Roman response:
expeditionary force defeated at Thermopylae
Simultaneously: Hannibal < Rhodian navy Then: --Magnesia ad Sipylum, 190: decisive victory --Roman commander: L. Cornelius Scipio ‘Asiaticus’ – brother of Scipio Africanus, consul 190 Did Rome take territory? No: treaty of Apamea (188) - territory given to allies àNo territorial gain, but significant interference in Greek affairs – and now, affairs of eastern states àDeath of Antiochus, and Hannibal… May.27th Lecture 7 148-133: deliberate Imperialism? 3 conflicts 1. Annecation of Macedonia after 148 2. Greek rebellion 3. Third Punic war 1-annexation of Macedonia Catalyst: mercenary, Andriscus- “I am the son of Perseus!” Gained lots of support from Macedonia and surrounding areas Romans and Pergamum vs. Andriscus Roman consul took epithet ‘Macedonicus’ Senate annexed territory, sent proconsul to govern it Significant: first eastern overseas territory 2-Greek rebellion Background: social unrest, quarrels between states Trigger-quarrel between Sparta and Achaean League (again) àAchaean League vs. Sparta and Rome Romans- 2 legions to support Sparta – commander notorious Lucius Mummius 146: sack of the ancient city of Corinth Famous massacre: population killed/sold Town burned Fields desecrated, gift to gods of the underworld Close to events- Polybius – an Achaean, sent as hostage to Rome with 999 others Mummius – epithet “Achaicus” Territory became Roman province of Achaea More deliberate seizure of territory 3- Third Punic War, 150-146 End of Carthage Catalyst: Massinissa, desire for territory 153: Cato with Roman Embassy in Carthage Plutarch’s biography of Cato – amazed at how Carthage had recovered from 2nd Punic War Cato: delenda est Carthago Tensions all around Carthaginians attacked Massinissa Rome declared war 149 Scipio Aemelianus, elected as consul – under the required age Bitter siege: horrific street-fighting New province: Africa, with Utica, as its capital In all 3 of these instances: -Protectorates in patron- client relationships turned in direct-rule provinces with proconsuls or propraetors 3rd Punic War in particular: deliberate decision to destroy Carthage Destruction of Carthage and Corinth: Livy identifies as beginning of moral declineof Romans Finally: 133: the Pergamene bequest Ancient and very powerful kingdom Long-time ally of Rome King Eumenes II had: -seen his kingdom as protectorate -Remained semi-independent -Roman interest in the kingdom increased Now: Attalus III: wanted to avoid a conquest Died, 133: left kingdom, people, riches, land, templesà SPQR Foreign campaigns, 133-96 BC – more deliberate expansion After 133 – see more deliberate forms of expansion Asia, 133-26 Scipio Nasica – sent by Senate to Pergamum Rebellion of Aristonicus Set up utopia: ‘City of the Sun’ – everyone free, equal Roman army: setbacks, by 126 all over New province of Asia Prestigious post for ambitious Roman governors Gaul, 125-118 125, Roman ally Massilia (-Marseille) – ask for help Southern Gaul annexed as Gallia Narbonensis Main settlement, Narbo (-Narbonne) What is happening? Romans used to do: Protectorates, local rulers Now: Annexing, building roads, settling people Military operations = opportunity to grab land Steady growth through military campaigns Territory incorporated as provinces: èInto formal admin of Republic All of this new territory: -Needed governors new opportunities for politicians -Offered economic prospects for negotiares -Subject to tax: more wealth for the state -More land for Roman citizens -Required an expansion of the bureaucracy Political, social, economic consequences Many changes, consequences coming from expansion 1. Political New opportunities = new ways to game the system So: Clarification of rules and standardization of cursus honorum After 180, set new minima: ages, other requirements for each office Ex. For quaestorship, needed 10 years of military service Hierarchy: do all the offices in order. No skipping! Could not be consul more than once Standardization of system, meant to cap overly – ambitious people New court to prosecute magistrates set up – much abuse of public funds, too much corruption Senate trying to ensure stability of system in face of change 2. Rome, allies, in Italy Changes in Italy -Second Punic War: problems in alliance system -Rewards/punishment – territory of punished alliesà Rome Romans: greater scrutiny over allies Who is going to be a threat next? – Micromanagement Looking for excuses? Dionysius – private vs. public – private = anti-Roman Spread of Roman citizens via colonia and steady ‘Romanization’ of Italy More citizens living amongst non-voting allies – highlights differences between them Ex. In Latium, citizenship actively restricted But: Latin soldiers fighting Rome’s wars Disproportionate burden; no results, no plunder Producing resentment Will lead to Social War (war of allies) later on 3. Elites Powerful, wealthy, old families (ex. Cornelii – family of Scipio Africanus; others) Also, now, the newly-enriched -Campania, Latium -What do they want? Senate proconsular governorships, political and military glory Elites benefit disproportionately from slaves, wealth, plundered art, booty, etc Plenty to be gained from the system -Ex. If governor, that could: -Demand that people feed you, house you -Give you transport -You could extort them Huge wealth to be gained – shown off in Italy – big houses, expensive mosaics, extravagant parties Imitated Greek/Hellenistic/Eastern ideas, art, models Famous examples: house uncovered in Pompeii ‘House of Faun, Pompeii’ Other influences on elites Wealth enabled patronage, ex. Scipio Aemelianus and Polybius Influences from conquest on culture more generally -Plautus, d. 184: influced by Greek comedy -Terence, d. 159 – freed Greek slave -Fabius Pictor – used Greek models, wrote in Greek -Ennius – writer who imitated Greek literature; thought he was a ‘new Homer’ Greek influence came from conquest Some thought it made Romans weak: ex, Cato the Elder: ‘decrepit old Greeks!’ Eastern ideas filtering in, fashions and food too -Elites take heavy Egyptian cotton instead of coarse wool for toga; indulgence -Silk, which comes from? China -Cuisine becomes more exotic! 4. Economy Great movement and displacement of people Enslaved Deported Exiled Off to the wars – soldiers can be gone for years and years Off to new colonies Who is doing all the essentialfarm-work? -Increasingly, slaves What if slaves can’t be afforded? Poorà city, slums, urban unrest Slaves- a real problem Huge numbers of slaves; many ways to be a slave Ex. 50,000 from Carthage alone Come to Italy in massive numbersà farms Growth of latifundia – commercial farming ops Big change from economy based on subsistence Some elites now control vast tracts of land Revolts Often treated poorly – big difference between salt mines and domestic slavery Ex. Latium – minor revoltà highway robbery, brigandage Ex. 135, Sicily: Eunous – ‘king Antiochus’ – long war to 132 Wake-up call to Rome And 103: rising in Campania: wealthy Roman and slave girl Most famous: Spartacus 5. Triumphs Triumphus has been about for a while – becomes more intricate over time Victorious general – triumphator Dressed up; special parade; enemies etc. paraded with him Carnivalesque atmosphere Problems: placed huge emphasis on 1 single individual Conquest and the Roman Republic Scipio Aemilianus Reflects dangerous change in politics and society Look to people, not Senate, for legitimacy and power Family pedigree: Grandson of L. Aemilius Paullus (d. 216) Son of L. aemilius Paullus Macedonicus Son of son of Scipio Africanus èWell connected! 3rd Punic War: ran for office Too young to be consul; had not been praetor Senate vs. Scipio: but comitia centuriata… Duly elected Interference with assigning of provinces – plebeian tribunes People decided: let our hero go to Carthage Reflects? -Senate weak -Standardization laws already being challenged Later: became censor (142) Did opposite of what expected to do -Associated himself with freed slaves, plebeians 135: wanted to run for consul – need for good commander in Spain Found way around law: elected 134 Shades of Africanus: found way around Senate, as well Successfully prosecuted war in Spain Very popular Achieved success without Senate, patrician support Very dangerous precedent Conquest and the Roman Republic 2. Gracchi brothers Tiberius and gaius Plebeian tribunes Major problems: Debate over Roman identity Problems in government Impending failure of Republican constitution èGracchi sold issue as one of land, social problems – too many acting for their own good, not for the good of the slate è End results – reveal real problems in Rome Presentation of issues: deal with social and economicproblems First- huge influx of wealth Second- effects of military service on peasants Two sides of the same coin, in the presentation Soldiers on campaign for years at a time- return, where is my farm? Land bought for latifundia: plantations So, no work – where do they go? And, cycle: fewer landowning peasants – fewer soldiers, because of property qualification Really? Other side: Army smaller (more people looking for work); Freeholders à tenants Looked as if aristocrats had ‘’taken all the land Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus From Sempronii (remember 2nd PW) Grandparents: Scipio Africanus, Aemillia Tertia (from Aemelli) Sister: wife of Scipio Aemilianus Married into Claudii family (later: core of imperial family) 137: Tiberius, quaestor, in Etruria: saw latifundia – ‘not a single free famer’ 133: plebeian tribune 1. limit amount of land people could hold 2. control rents 3. extra landà landless 4. Pergamene bequest, now part of ager publicus: could be used for this à put people back on the land where they belong èFix problems in Roman society (moral/economic) Problem with this? Redistribution of land: radical: anti-patrician Dealt with public land – large numbers of senators involved in holding big % of ager publicus So, senatorial resistance to be expected So, Tiberius – decided to bypass Senate Go to comitia instead Another plebeian tribune, Octavius, ordered by Senate to oppose TG took action Finally, 3 man commission TG, GG, father- in- law (princeps senates, former consul) After 133 - TG looked for re-election Sign of ‘dangerous’ ambition Senate instigated riot Pontifex Maximus: Scipio Nasica Mob killed TG and 300 followers Witch hunt followed May.5th Lecture 10 The first Triumvirate, 60-54 Personal ambitions · Pompey and Caesar · The first Triumvirate · Pompey, Crassus, Caesar · Major ambition: problems with Senate · Caesar: praetor in 62; proprietor in 61; wanted cos., 59 · Suetonius on Caesar · Caesar ready for a triumph in Rome · Clashed with desire for consulship, why? · Formal permission, request- candidacy in absentia · Cato the Younger sized up Caesar; made wrong call · What about Pompey · Wanted eastern settlement ratified, land for vets · Senate prevaricated · And Crassus – major section of this client- publican · Needed new contract · Senate refused · All three butting head with Senate · Banded together · 59: Pompey married Julia, daughter of Caesar and Cornelia · Goals secure o Caesar, cos. 59, with conservative colleague o Pompey got ratification etc. o Crassus- helped publican · SENATE SIDELINED · Actions of Cicero: Concordia ordinum, consensus omnium bonorum · Behind this: loyalty to state, support of Senate · 59: helped by Publius Clodius, tirb. 58 · long list of problems with Cicero · Had infiltrated party at home of Caesar · Cicero prosecuted Clodius · Ended with exile of Cicero · Cicero out od the way; Clodius had own ambitions · 58: Caesar proconsul- Transalpine Gaul · Out of way; Clodius turned on Pompey · Role of Caesar and Crassus…put Clodius up to it? · Gang warfare in streets – Clodius & gang vs. Pompey/Miol (ally) and gang · Milo, trib.57 recalled Cicero · Why? Cicero- stablilty · 57: returned · Gave Pompey a plum job, which he screwed up · Gang violence did not abate · Pompey doing badly · Caesar? · Caesar doing very well in Gaul o Gallic campaigns, big consequences for § Caesar’s career § Relationship with Pompey § Fate of Republic Pompey and Caesar · Caesar in Gaul, 58-51 · Wrote about wars in Gaul, Brotain · Called north Gallia Comata’ · Agricultural society · 58: tribe called Helvetii PRRESSED AGAINST rHONE RIVER · Asked Caesar – enter Narbonensis · Refused: war · Glory? Reai threat? · Defeated Helvetii at Bibracte · Helped out Caesar’s rep · Envoys came for help · More war: Suebi; Belgae, others · Fighting for sake of conquest: Caesar set out to conquer all of Gaul · 56: in north: savage actions · Resistance to Caesar – wholesale slaughter · 55: famous visit to Britain · Why? Wealth; edge of known world · Did not accomplish much · Went back to Gaul · Commemorated campaign in his diaries, coins · 52: uprsing in Gaul · Vercingetoris · Defeated Caesar; returned compliment at Alesia · Later, Vercingetorix garroted in Caesar’s triumph · All of this- opened up N/Central Europe to Roman culture and civilizing · Changed course of history The triumvirate threatened · Causes 1. Caesar in Gaul 2. Pompey and Crassus 3. MutuL Suspicion · 56: meet up: 5-year commands o Gaul, Spain, Syria · Julia died (54) · Crassus died (53) · Crassus – very ambitious · Burdened by expectations o Pompey o Caesar o Alexander · Hatched big plan: invade Parthia · Did not take offered from Armenia · Crossed riverine border · Took 35,000 legionaried · Defeated by a tiny Parthian fore, commanded by Surena · Factors o Horse-archers o Parthian shot o Romans could not get close enough · Parthian cav superior · Became new boogeymen: 160s · Crassus lost son; head on spear · Retreated to Catrhae · Parthian c.o. Surena offered talks · Various stories · Romans shocked · Legionary standards taken in battle · Surena – met his end · Caesar planned campaign of vengeance · Strange stories... · The ‘gladiators’ o Caesar: wealth, power o Pompey: links to Caecilii Metelli · Dec, 50: Caesar’s five-year Gallic command · Clever move on Caesar’s part – ‘I”ll lay down my power, if you do as well’ · Pompey agreed · Condition provided by Caesar’s friend, Curio · Stalemate: ‘defend the Republic!’ · Jan, 49: enter Marcus Antonius, Plebeian Tribune… friend of Caesar · Jan 7 · Caesar, Antony, Curio o Alea iacta est · Arcoss the Rubicon – out of Transalpine Gaul, into Italy: war Civil war: 49-46 · Caesar: decleared war against Sentae, Pompey · Position – weak morally · Poor tactical position · Some benefits- clementic · Cicero – Concordia · Pompey’s plan · Caesar’s unexpected response · Decisive showdown at Pharsalus, Thessaly, Aug, 48 · Pompey; defeated; fled; Ptolemy XII · Instead… · Head cut off; sent to Caesar · Took vengeance: disrespect · Why? Caesar had some old-fashion left in him · What now? o Caesar, in Alexandria o Captivated: by Cleopatra; helped her get her throne back · ABSENT FROM Rome; Caesar, dictator, in 48 · Left Cleopatra pregnant; caesarion · Rome, 47; Africa, 46, at Utica · At Thapsus; heavy defeat · Survivors o Cato o Scipio · Cicero, on Cato · Symbolic importance of Cato’s death · Caesar? Dictator, for 10 years · And who came to Rome? · One survivor of the carnage: sextus Pompey and bro, Gnaeus · Raised army: beaten at Cordoba in 46/5 Caesar as Dictator, 48-44 · Reforms- Julian Calendar · Attempt to deal with economic problems · New Sentaprs from provinces · Building projects · What else? o Colonies o Infrastructure o Romans off to the provinces-citizenship · Military plans o Dacia (Romania) wait until Trajan o Parthia – wait until Lucius Verus/ Marcus Aurelius · Didn’t’ get there · Assassinated in Senate by CONSPIRACY o 15th March, 44 ‘ldes’ o M.Junius Brutus o G. Cassius Longinus · What about Caesar’s royal pretensions – did they exist? · Feb 15,44, at the Lupercalis o Actions of Antony – ready with crown, judges crowd · Clearly resented · Brutus and Cassius – not alone · But, only caused more pain, war, suffering The end of the republic; birth of the Empire · Antony and Octavian · 3rd pair (Marius and Sulla; Pompey and Caesar) · years 44-31: very important period in Roman history After Caesar: 44-43 · Brutus and Cassius: error in judgment · Antony – hiding · M. Aemilius Lepidus – magister equitum for Caesar – tense, stayed with troops · Actions of Antony · Like Caesar, used funeral for political gain o Read will in public o Flight of Brutus and Cassius · Antony – new role for him · But: Caesar’s ambitious 18 years old newphew: o Octavius · Caesar’s will? · New name o Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus= Octavian · Antony- facing new threat · First blood went to Octavian · Mutina (Modena), 43 · Open hostility · 44: Antony cos; 43, given Macedonia, wanted Cisalpine Gaul · Left for new command early · Actions with Decimus Brutus · Antony vs. Senate · Cicero and Octavian · Famous speeches of Cicero: philippics · Cicero o MA’s cruelty; sex appetite; eccentricities, etc. o Slanderous o Enemy of the… · Was Cicero a fool? Trusting Octavian? · MA bigger threat · Octavian – proprietorial power · Octavian suddenly – legitimate Senatorial representative · Teamed up with consuls., Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Panse · Antony o Transalpine Gaul o Lepidus o And Hirtius and Panse? o Left Octavian with…eight legions, support of soliers · Octavian – Rome · Took money, got himself elected The second Triumvirate, 43-32 BC · Cicero, Senate shocked · MA and Octavian: sort out diffs · Broker; Lepidus · New agreement – second Triumvirate o Antony o Octavian o Lepidus · Idea: 5 years each · Nov 43: Comitia voted Triumvirs o Supreme power o Lex Tatia o Difference btw 1st Tr. And 2nd Tr? · Consequences 1. Proscription (Cicero) a. Included 150 senators, equestrians 2. Divisions of power a. Lepidus: S.Gaul, Spain, 3. War against Caesar’s assassins Jun. 10th Lecture 11 The second triumvirate, 43-32 BC After Philippi- east added to 2nd Tr. New land assignments Lepidus gave up Spain, S. Gaul Other projects: Parthia; Italy And 1. Sextus Pompey- making name for himself Eliminate or negotiate? 2. Look after vets from Philippi – ex. Land But: uneven deal between Antony and Octavian? Seeds sown for Antony’s failure Lepidus: phased out Discord: 42-36 War of Perusia/Perugia, 41-40 Veterans promised land in Italy Virgil –Eclogue, 1- problems L. Antonius, bro of Antony – cos. – actions Banner: ‘restoration of Republic’ Lucius helped by Fulvia Plutarch, life of Antony, 10: “A woman with no mind for spinning or house-keeping, who did not condescend…” Octavian’s actions Blockade Victory: clementia of Caesar Treaty of Brundisium Antony – could make legit claim that Lucius / Fulvia acted alone Antony’s deputy in Gaul Antony at Brundisium Forced to work together – why? Confirmed existing agreement Marriage to Octavia (Fulvia now dead) War with Sextus 30-36 39: Naples Agreement – Treaty of Misenum’ Octavian – married Scribonia (niece of S. – wife of Sextus) FYI: Scribonia: mother of Julia (thus, mother in law of Tiberius, great grandmother of Caligula and Agrippinaà mother of Nero) Amicable Sextus lost big opportunity Treaty half-collapsed Octavian and Scribonia, on day of Julia’s birth 38: Sextus – back to being a pirate M. Vipsanius Agrippa- finally won for Octavian 35: Sextus murdered Lepidus – bid for power Forced into retirement Pontifex maximus until 12 BC – then Octavian Now, 45 legions, auxiliary units (300,000 +/-) 600 ships Master of the west Antony – good position? Actions in east, vs. position of Octavian 38, Antony looking to Parthia – join Publius Ventidius Octavian: called him back, but… 37: five-year terms ended Treaty of Tarentum Antony headed east Parthian invasion with Artavazd Disaster, vs. Octavian/Agrippa’s success in west 35: Armenia added to Roman realm- beginning of long struggle for influence Antony and Cleopatra: now King and queen Titles, territories Alexander Helios; Cleopatra Selene Ptolemy Philadelphus “Donations of Alexandria”: triumph, too What effect in Rome? For Octavian? After with Cleopatra – what were Roman ideas of her? War of ideas Octavian, presented as option A Antony, option B What else? Octavia, in Athens Speculation about Octavian’s actions? Result , anyway: public anger But- Antony shot himself in the foot 34: letter to Senate; ignored Jan 1, 32 BC Ideological war intensified Formal split Now, underhanded actions: Antony’s will What did it say? Confirmed Antony’s attitude, outlook, dangerous ideas Moving capital to Alexandria? War was only a little way off What does Syme (Roman Revolution) have to say about this? 32 BC Problems for Octavian – Triumvirate over Source of authority? Feb; Rome; actions in Senate Panic Conscious portrayal as Savior Bringer of peace, order Protégé of Apollo Played on experience of civil wars 32-31 BC Senate: Octavian’s puppet Antony: lost all remaining credibility Antony: prepared army Octavian: consul for 31 (pretense of legitimacy) Oath – to Republic? Patron/client relationship Next: Actium 31 BC Definitive engagement at Actium Key moment: Cleopatra’s actions 31-30 BC 30: blockaded Alexandria Demanded surrender What did Antony do? Knew what fate awaited him, if he was caught And Cleopatra? Legacy of Cleopatra Oriental despot queen Depictions heavily romanticized – languid, sexual, etc. Egypt annexed Consequences of Actium Antony and Cleopatra Psych/political turning point Reinforced, revealed soc/cultural changes Actium and aftermath Octavian – cementing control of Med basin West 29 – returned to Italy Res Gestae – 14 AD Remarkable propaganda document Role of Mussolini Ankara Copies everywhere RG – showed how he explained his power èStresses how Octavian/Augustus “saved” the republic at the behest of the

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