Discuss the difference between criminal intelligence and business

| March 14, 2016

1. Discuss the difference between criminal intelligence and business intelligence and the difference between business intelligence and institutional espionage.

Your response should be a minimum of 300 words in length.

2. Briefly define the various types of investigations conducted by security and protective services and the statues that govern the conduct of investigative agents. In your opinion, which type of investigation is conducted the most by security and protective service agencies in your community? Include a detailed discussion of how you reached your conclusion.

Your response should be a minimum of 300 words in length.

General Overview

When people hear the term investigation the first thing that comes to mind is what they saw on a dramatized crime show or TV program. In actuality there are several types of investigations. There are human resource investigations that investigate issues related to employee backgrounds, workplace violence, employment discrimination, worker compensation, sexual harassment, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and wrongful termination. There are also personal injury and property damage investigations, and criminal investigations which include undercover investigations. Another aspect of criminal investigations is business crime investigations which involves investigations concerning crimes committed against businesses by employees (e.g., fraud and embezzlement), crimes committed against businesses by outsiders (e.g., arson and robbery), and crimes committed by individuals on behalf of businesses (e.g., tax evasion and commercial bribery).

Information collected in investigations is derived from various sources which “include physical evidence, specialized databases, victims, witnesses, suspects, records, informants, and the Internet” (Ortmeier, 2013, p. 212). Once information is gathered it is then analyzed. The analysis of physical evidence is associated with forensic science and criminalistics. Such analyses are traditionally conducted in the laboratory. DNA testing is one of several analysis techniques used by forensic scientists. Other techniques include psychological profiling, anthropological strategies, forensic accounting, biology, chemistry, ballistics testing, and many more. Every investigation is governed by a code of conduct. Both private and public law enforcement and security agencies are governed by investigative statutes which govern overt and covert investigative techniques

(e.g., the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 and the

Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988). While the fourth amendment to the

Constitution only restricts government conduct, private and nongovernment employees may also have an expectation of privacy if their employers knowingly or knowingly create an expectation of privacy among their employees.

Intelligence operations are not limited to criminal investigations. They also include business intelligence operations, which is also known as competitive intelligence. This form of intelligence is designed to assist businesses in controlling losses that result from competition. Business intelligence is alegitimate and ethical activity. Both internal and external sources can be accessed to obtain information about competing organizations strategies such as sales promotions, employee recruitment, pricing, distribution center strategies, and advertising.

Criminal intelligence is used to protect against actual criminal activity and possible threats of criminal activity, such as industrial espionage. An extension of criminal intelligence is national intelligence which focuses on collecting information about foreign entities viewed as potential threats to the nation. Counterespionage strategies prevent espionage using covert and overt strategies which “involves application of appropriate physical, personnel, and information security measures as well as a thorough investigation of all actual intent to security breaches” (Ortmeier, 2013, pp.220-221).

Documentation of incidents, interviews, accidents, investigations or criminal activity is instrumental in assisting security personnel in addressing security issues. Such documentation is useful in the development of reports (contact, incident, narrative, and organization – specific) which are one of the most important outcomes associated with investigations. To maximize the usefulness of reports, reports must be well organized, grammatically sound, clear and concise, free of unnecessary jargon, and include crucial information (e.g., how the report writer was involved in the incident, details about what happened, information about all the parties involved, statements from the involved parties, descriptions of the scene where the incident occurred, descriptions of evidence, damage or theft, and any actions conducted by personnel on the scene).

There are some distinctions and exceptions to general security management principles, and loss prevention philosophies and practices. For example, banking and financial institutions are susceptible to threats and loss of assets in physical and digital environments. Funds can now be transferred electronically without any paper trails. In addition, the types of financial institutions are as diverse as the way funds move across these entities. In 1968 the Bank Protection Act was passed by the U.S. Congress to assist in reducing the vulnerability of financial institutions. However, the act only established minimal guidelines and is not effective in controlling technological threats to financial assets.

High profile cases involving the murder of court personnel walking to work and even the murder of court personnel and law enforcement in the perceived security of their homes by defendants in the cases they were associated with exemplifies the need for courthouse and courtroom security. To respond to these increase threats many courthouses and courtrooms have increased security measures such as metal detectors, state-of-the-art surveillance systems, security glass, secured and covered entrances and parking decks for court personnel, and the use of sheriff deputies as courthouse and courtroom security.

Educational institutions also require unique security preparations. It was once believed that schools were safe havens into which the threats from the outside world could not penetrate. However, recent events in which children at schools have become the victims of murder at the hands of lone gunman and/or have died as a result of natural disasters that have impacted schools critically exemplify the need for special security measures at educational institutions.

Violent crime, sexual assaults, homicides, thefts, gang and drug activity, and many other threats to institutional security exist across all levels of education. However, the age of the students, structure of the facilities, the number and characteristics of staff, and the access of members of the community veryacross all levels of education. Thus, different criteria must be considered for elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities. Many states have created safe-school zone. The federal government has created informational material such as a guide entitled Threats Assessments in Schools published by the U.S. Secret Service. Agencies have also developed informational pages on their websites concerning school safety. Legislation like the Crime Awareness And Campus Security Act of 1990, also known as the Clery Act, have been established and require post-secondary institutions to gather and post the current crime statistics so that students, parents, faculty and staff all were on the status of crime on their campuses. College and university informational guides also include sections about safety security measures available at their featured colleges and universities.

Healthcare facilities also have unique security concerns. Security must be maintained in order for healthcare facilities to function. There are numerous international, federal, state, and local requirements that mandate the provision of a secure healthcare environment. Healthcare security covers many facets such as facilities, personnel, equipment and supplies, service provision, records, and mobile healthcare units.

Hospitality security, entertainment security, disaster recovery, and executive protection are other areas which require specific security considerations. For example, the hospitality industry has invested significant amounts of money into making its establishments attractive to its guests. However, in so doing many internal controls were not established. We can all think of people we know who have come home from a hotel with linen, dishes, and other items that were not intended for guests take home in their suitcases. In addition to loss of assets, the hospitality industry is also susceptible to accidents, fires, and natural disasters.

To respond to these unique threats to security key control, alarm systems, security cameras, and the employment of security personnel are usually implemented.

The entertainment industry (sporting events, recreation areas and their components, racetracks, movies and music, ships and boats, casinos) also has its set of unique threats to security that are associated with the size of the venue, the openness of the venue facilities, and the number of people that attend the events.

Disaster recovery is a specialty area in the field of security management that focuses on managing organization-related disasters (damages that result from natural and environmental disasters) to ensure that services are restored quickly and customers are not loss due to dissatisfaction with the services provided during disaster recovery efforts.

Lastly, protection of executives, citizens, and political leaders is a continual challenge. Incidences of executive kidnapping continue to increase abroad. Acts of terrorism against citizens is on the rise in the United States, and political leaders are more at risk of being injured or killed by gunfire during public appearances and at their private residences. Therefore, it is important that effective executive protection programs include 1) risk assessments that accurately identify threats, the likelihood of the threat being realized, and assessment of the damage that would result if the threat was realized; 2) advanced procedures that implement security arrangements before, during, and after the executive travels; and 3) protective operations which involve the accompanying of the executive by executive detection personnel who are equipped and ready to use counter surveillance and defensive tactics to protect the executive.

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