Data Collection and Statistical Tools

****In this Discussion, you will look at these statistical tools for qualityimprovement and describe the differences between common cause variation and special cause variation. You will also explain any ethical, legal, or moral obligations that would support your rationale.*****Read the following situations and determine whether each situation is *****A common cause variation or a special cause variation:1.****Dispensing the wrong medication to a patient2.******Dispensing the correct medication several hours after it was supposed to be dispensed******For both of these examples, apply data-collection and statistical tools to measure and explain your rationale for your determination.*************************************************Shewhart’s Theory for Statistical Process Control (SPC) requires a change inthinking from error detection to error prevention and has a number ofbenefits in health care. Several of the benefits include patient focus,increased quality awareness, decisions based on data, implementingpredictable health care processes, reduced costs, fewer errors resulting inincreased patient safety, and improved processes that result in improvedhealth care outcomes and better quality care. However, every process varies.In SPC terminology as it relates to a control chart, a common causevariation does not suggest that a process functions at a desirable orundesirable level, but whether the nature of the variation is stable orpredictable within certain limits. A special cause variation is a negativefinding, and any changes made in a health care organization should not bemade until it identifies and eliminates special causes. A control chart willtell a health care organization if a variation is a common or special causeand how to approach an improvement process. If it is a special cause thehealth care organization should investigate it and eliminate the variation,not change the process. If there is a common cause variation, theimplementation of a process change is what will address the variation.Control charts will reveal whether the change was effective (Joshi,2014).

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