Course Project – Build an Annotated Bibliography

| January 31, 2017


Please build your formal annotated bibliography with at least five resources and submit it before the end of this module. Follow the format and requirements as spelled out in the handouts.

Remember to continue researching in preparation for your final report!

Submit your completed assignment by following the directions linked below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.

*Pervious assignment

Topic: The hidden effects of cosmetic surgery on women

Research question: Are the associated dangers of cosmetic surgery worth the procedures?

The topic will be addressed from the definition of cosmetic surgery, the types, and conditions leading to its performance and finally the risks and effects associated with undergoing these procedures. The topic is important to me and I chose to research on it after the recently increased frequencies of botched operations. Many women often feel unfulfilled with a particular body part and end up spending so much money on corrective cosmetic surgery. Such women go into the procedure without taking into account the potential dangers that the operations could cause. Medical practitioners also give two sides of the story and advice women on the side effects of these operations. They often ignore the fact that the surgery may not turn out to be as helpful and perfect the way that they intended. I am a believer that everyone is created perfectly, and we are a reflection of beauty, I, therefore, discourage cosmetic surgery and through this research paper, I hope to reach out to younger women who are currently considering such procedures.

The background information for this research will be attained from the journals, recorded experiences from victims and news articles that are related to the study topic. The materials that I would need to achieve this research would be medical journals on cosmetic surgery, testimonies from victims of botched operations, the Bible, medical websites with information about the topic and the government website about the same issue. This research is ideally both a quantitative and qualitative research. It involves the collection of data from observation, interviews, and data from accredited sources and numerical explanations from medical journals. Finally, I anticipate completing the research paper in seven days. This is to allow me to collect enough evidence and information to support my topic.


Negative Effects – How Much Is Too Much. (n.d.). Retrieved from



Cosmetic surgery includes surgical, as well as, nonsurgical procedures, which are carried out with the objective of reshaping certain structures of the body in order to make better one’s appearance and confidence. Healthy people with not only a positive outlook but also realistic expectations are the ideal candidates for cosmetic procedures. The most common cosmetic surgeries involve breast augmentation, facelift surgery, facial implants, fat reduction and many others (Davis, 2013). Basically, plastic surgery is considered as a personal choice and has to be done for oneself, but not to meet the expectations of other people or in a desperate attempt to fit a certain ideal image. Putting into consideration that cosmetic surgery is elective; it is mostly not covered by health insurances. All cosmetic surgery procedures carry certain level of risk. Despite the benefit of enhancing of someone’s appearance upon undergoing cosmetic surgery procedures, many question whether it is worth taking the risk with the various dangers associated with such procedures.


a) Cosmetic Surgery Complications

· Nerve Damage – The probability of suffering from nerve damage is high in various types of surgical procedures. Majority of women experience changes in sensitivity after undergoing augmentation, whereas around 15% lose nipple sensation permanently (Groen et al., 2016).

· Hematoma – it is a blood pocket, which resembles an enormous, painful bruise. It affects around 1-6 % of persons who have undergone breast augmentation procedures. It is also the most complication upon having a facelift. It is also a risk within almost all surgeries, and in some cases treatment involves extra operations to drain the blood.

· Organ Damage-some cosmetic surgery procedures such as liposuction have the potential of being traumatic for internal organs. Sometimes, visceral perforations or even punctures can emerge once the surgical probe gets into contact with the internal organs. In some cases the perforations turn out to be fatal and repair requires extra surgery.

· Anesthesia Complications-general anesthesia, in the cases whereby medication is utilized to make one unconscious, can contribute to complications. Such complications include stroke, lung infections, heart attacks, and even death (Davis, 2013).

· Scarring-typically, surgery results to some scarring. For instance, hypertrophic scarring is an abnormal red, thick raised scar, which emerges in 2-5% of the breast augmentation procedures.

b) Associated Psychological Disorders.

· Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) – refers to the anxiety disorder, which makes an individual to have a corrupted view of his or her looks, and spends much time worried about their appearance. For instance, one may be convinced that a scar, which is barely visible, is a major flow which everyone stares at once they meet him or her thus making the victim lose confidence with herself or himself (Veale, 2000).

c) Unnecessary Expense-in some cases, there raises the need for additional surgeries after the premier surgery. This can make the process to expensive yet one could have lived a normal life even without undergoing the surgery in the first place. To make the matters worse the succeeding surgeries are mandatory as they are meant to correct an abnormality brought about by the first cosmetic surgery procedure (Groen et al., 2016).


Based on the identified dangers associated with cosmetic surgery, it is outright that people should avoid it at all costs. It can basically be considered as unwise to put someone’s health in jeopardy in the name of fulfilling the desire to appear smart and attractive. Aged people, particularly women, should understand that aging is simply natural and part of life. In the event that they understand and accept the changes that their bodies undergo as a result of getting old, they will not gain interests towards undergoing cosmetic surgery procedures. Besides, even if one undergoes whatever kind of cosmetic surgery, one cannot succeed in maintaining a youthful look forever in his or her lifetime.


Davis, K. (2013). Reshaping the female body: The dilemma of cosmetic surgery. Routledge.

Groen, J. W., Negenborn, V. L., Twisk, J. W., Ket, J. C., Mullender, M. G., & Smit, J. M. (2016). Autologous fat grafting in cosmetic breast augmentation: a systematic review on radiological safety, complications, volume retention, and patient/surgeon satisfaction. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, sjw105.

Veale, D. (2000). Outcome of cosmetic surgery and ‘DIY’surgery in patients with body dysmorphic disorder. The Psychiatrist, 24(6), 218-220.

* Hypothesis

Cosmetic surgery has a negative effect on the women who have undergone the procedure.

Methods and Resources for Quantitative Research

Quantitative research data for this research was collected using a collection of methods. For this case, both primary and secondary data sources were used. The primary data source comprises of interviews, observations, and questionnaires. The narration of experience from the women who have had various experiences with the procedure formed the background of the information. The interviews have open-ended questions that give room for more explanation and expression of feelings towards the process. The doctors who have experience in the procedure were also interviewed for their take on the effects of this medical process on the women.

Observation is an objective data collection method that gives the researcher the opportunity to view the facts and note the different variables. Women who have undergone the operation were observed for any changes in the normal body functioning process. The other supplementary date collection procedure to be used is the questionnaires. A different set of questions were used for the patients and the experts. The response from these two quarters was merged to come up with a report. The secondary sources of this information are the medical journals and peer-reviewed expert opinions on the effects of the procedure on women. The statistical data from the department of health also acted as a rich source of numerical figures and data for this study ( Groen et Al, 2016).

Basic Information

Medical tests were done on the changes in the normal function of the body system and specifically the organs on which the procedures had been performed. Observation and personal testimonies of the women provided a framework for obtaining fact hand information about the effects of the procedures. Various experts in the field also provided technical evaluation of the process and the perceived impacts on the well-being of the patients. Secondary data from medical journals and statistics were collected to assist in the analysis and evaluation of the information from the primary sources.

Expert opinion indicated that there is a high likelihood of the damages to the nerves. The information was supported by the interview responses from the women who reported changes in sensation and sensitivity. Augmentation and Breast surgery reduced women sensitivity (Veale, 2000). About 15% of the respondents reported loss of nipple sensitivity. Augmentation was reported to have led to a condition known as a hematoma. About 1-6% of the women reported this problem after undergoing augmentation. 2-5 % of the respondents reportedly suffered from a condition known as hypertrophic scarring after augmentation.

Interpretation of Data

The data discussed above leads to only one conclusion; cosmetic surgery has negative impacts on the patients. It leads to nerve damage, organ damage and reduction in woman sensitivity. When the woman loses her sensitivity in her breast, she becomes less active in sex since she would lose the stimulation and arousal which is triggered by the nipple. The nerve damage could impact the normal functioning of the breast such as breastfeeding. Augmentation is also associated with an occurrence of painful bruises that make the woman live under the grips of pain. The symptoms may also appear as thick red scar under the skin which also makes the patient to live under pain. Cosmetic surgery is, therefore, a danger to the body organs due to likely damages (Davis, 2013).

How this Research Supports the Thesis Statement

This research uses the firsthand accounts of the women who have undergone surgery and the experts who have administered the same. The experiences of the women are interpreted in medical terms and understood from the expert position. The research has outlined the effects of the surgery which are harmful to the women hence supporting the thesis statement.


Groen, J. W., Negenborn, V. L., Twisk, J. W., Ket, J. C., Mullender, M. G., & Smit, J. M. (2016). Autologous fat grafting in cosmetic breast augmentation: a systematic review on radiological safety, complications, volume retention, and patient/surgeon satisfaction. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, sjw105.

Veale, D. (2000). Outcome of cosmetic surgery and ‘DIY’surgery in patients with body dysmorphic disorder. The Psychiatrist, 24(6), 218-220.

Davis, K. (2013). Reshaping the female body: The dilemma of cosmetic surgery. Routledge.

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