# Cost Accounting-Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

January 30, 2017

Question
Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

Imagine you are a manager at a major bottling company. Customers have begun
to complain that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in your company
contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of product. Your boss wants
to solve the problem at hand and has asked you to investigate. You have your
employees pull thirty (30) bottles off the line at random from all the shifts at the
bottling plant. You ask your employees to measure the amount of soda there is in
each bottle. Note: Use the data set provided by your instructor to complete this
assignment.
Bottle
Number

Ounces

Bottle
Number

Ounces

Bottle
Number

Ounces

1

14.5

11

15

21

14.1

2

14.6

12

15.1

22

14.2

3

14.7

13

15

23

14

4

14.8

14

14.4

24

14.9

5

14.9

15

15.8

25

14.7

6

15.3

16

14

26

14.5

7

14.9

17

16

27

14.6

8

15.5

18

16.1

28

14.8

9

14.8

19

15.8

29

14.8

10

15.2

20

14.5

30

14.6

Write a two to three (2-3) page report in which you:
1. Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the

bottles.

2. Construct a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.
3. Conduct a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less

than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Clearly state the logic of your test,
the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.
4. Provide the following discussion based on the conclusion of your test:

a. If you conclude that there are less than sixteen (16) ounces in a bottle
of soda, speculate on three (3) possible causes. Next, suggest the
strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.
Or
b. If you conclude that the claim of less soda per bottle is not supported
situation. Include your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim,
and recommend one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in
the future.
1. Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with
one-inch margins on all sides. No citations and references are required,
but if you use them, they must follow APA format. Check with your
2. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s
name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover
page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment
page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
3. Calculate measurements of central tendency and dispersal.
4. Determine confidence intervals for data.
5. Describe the vocabulary and principles of hypothesis testing.
6. Discuss application of course content to professional contexts.
7. Use technological tools to solve problems in statistics.
8. Write clearly and concisely about statistics using proper writing

mechanics.

Points: 140

Criteria

Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

Unacceptable

Meets Minimum
Expectations

Fair

Proficient

Exemplary

Below 60% F

60-69% D

70-79% C

80-89% B

90-100% A

1. Calculate
the mean,
median, and
standard
deviation for
ounces in the
bottles.
Weight: 20%
2. Construct a
95%
Confidence
Interval for the
ounces in the
bottles.
Weight: 25%

Did not submit or
incompletely
calculated the
mean, median,
and standard
deviation for
ounces in the
bottles.

Insufficiently calculated
the mean, median, and
standard deviation for
ounces in the bottles.

Satisfactorily calculated
the mean, median, and
standard deviation for
ounces in the bottles.

Thoroughly
calculated the
mean,
median, and
standard
deviation for
ounces in the
bottles.

Did not submit or Insufficiently constructed a Partially
Satisfactorily constructed a Thoroughly
incompletely
95% Confidence Interval constructed a
95% Confidence Interval constructed a
constructed a 95% for the ounces in the
95% Confidence for the ounces in the
95%
Confidence
bottles.
Interval for the bottles.
Confidence
Interval for the
ounces in the
Interval for
ounces in the
bottles.
the ounces in
bottles.
the bottles.

3. Conduct a Did not submit or Insufficiently conducted a
hypothesis test incompletely
hypothesis test to verify if
to verify if the conducted a
the claim that a bottle
claim that a
hypothesis test to contains less than sixteen
bottle contains verify if the claim (16) ounces is supported.
less than
that a bottle
Insufficiently stated the
sixteen (16) contains less than logic of your test, the
ounces is
sixteen (16)
calculations, and the
ounces is
supported.
Clearly state supported. Did not
submit or
the logic of
calculations, stated the logic of
and the
conclusion of calculations, and
the conclusion of
Weight: 30%
4a. If you
conclude that
there are less
than sixteen
(16) ounces in
a bottle of
soda,
speculate on
three (3)
possible
causes. Next,
suggest the
strategies to
avoid the
deficit in the
future.

Partially
calculated the
mean, median,
and standard
deviation for
ounces in the
bottles.

Did not submit or
incompletely
speculated on
three (3) possible
causes. Did not
submit or
incompletely
suggested the
strategies to avoid
the deficit in the
future.

Insufficiently speculated
on three (3) possible
causes. Insufficiently
suggested the strategies
to avoid the deficit in the
future.

Partially
Satisfactorily conducted a
conducted a
hypothesis test to verify if
hypothesis test the claim that a bottle
to verify if the
contains less than sixteen
claim that a
(16) ounces is supported.
bottle contains Satisfactorily stated the
less than sixteen logic of your test, the
(16) ounces is calculations, and the
supported.
Partially stated
the logic of your
test, the
calculations, and
the conclusion of

Thoroughly
conducted a
hypothesis
test to verify if
the claim that
a bottle
contains less
than sixteen
(16) ounces is
supported.
Thoroughly
stated the
logic of your
test, the
calculations,
and the
conclusion of

Partially
Satisfactorily speculated Thoroughly
speculated on on three (3) possible
speculated on
three (3)
causes. Satisfactorily
three (3)
possible causes. suggested the strategies to possible
Partially
avoid the deficit in the
causes.
suggested the future.
Thoroughly
strategies to
suggested the
avoid the deficit
strategies to
Or
Or
in the future.
avoid the
deficit in the
future.
Insufficiently provided a
Satisfactorily provided a
Or
detailed explanation to
detailed explanation to
Or
Or
situation. Insufficiently
Partially
situation. Satisfactorily
Did not submit or on the reason(s) behind detailed
on the reason(s) behind
incompletely
the claim, and insufficiently explanation to the claim, and satisfactorily Thoroughly
provided a
recommended one (1)
provided a
Or
detailed
strategy geared toward
the situation.
strategy geared toward
detailed
explanation to
mitigating this issue in the Partially included mitigating this issue in the explanation to
4b. If you
conclude that the situation. Did
on the reason(s)
the claim of
not submit or
behind the claim,
situation.
less soda per incompletely
and partially

bottle is not
included your
supported or speculation on the
justified,
reason(s) behind
provide a
the claim, and did
detailed
not submit or
explanation to incompletely
recommended one
(1) strategy
situation.
geared toward
speculation on issue in the future.
the reason(s)
behind the
claim, and
recommend
one (1)
strategy
geared toward
mitigating this
issue in the
future.

recommended
one (1) strategy
geared toward
mitigating this
issue in the
future.

Thoroughly
included your
speculation
on the
reason(s)
behind the
claim, and
thoroughly
recommende
d one (1)
strategy
geared
toward
mitigating this
issue in the
future.

Rarely uses reasons and Partially uses
Mostly uses reasons and
evidence that logically
reasons and
evidence that logically
support ideas.
evidence that
support ideas.
logically support
ideas.

Consistently
uses reasons
and evidence
that logically
support
ideas.

Weight: 15%
5. Writing /
Support for
ideas
Weight: 5%

Never uses
reasons and
evidence that
logically support
ideas.

6. Writing /
Serious and
Numerous errors in
Grammar and persistent errors in grammar, spelling, and
mechanics
grammar, spelling, punctuation.
and punctuation.
Weight: 5%

Partially free of Mostly free of errors in
errors in
grammar, spelling, and
grammar,
punctuation.
spelling, and
punctuation.

Free of errors
in grammar,
spelling, and
punctuation.

Running head: VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

The title
should
summarize
the paper’s
main idea and
identify the
variables
under
discussion
and the
relationship
between
them.
The title
should be
centered on
the page,
typed in 12point Times
New Roman
Font. It
should not be
bolded,
underlined, or
italicized.

Varying Definitions of Online Communication and
Their Effects on Relationship Research
Elizabeth L. Angeli
The author’s
name and
institution
should be
doublespaced and
centered.

Purdue University

Blue boxes contain
directions for writing
and citing in APA
style.
Green text boxes
contain explanations
of APA style
guidelines.

1

The running
shortened
version of the
paper’s full title,
and it is used to
identify the
titles for
published
articles (even if
not intended for
publication, your
paper should
still have a
The running
exceed 50
characters,
including spaces
and
punctuation.
The running
should be in
capital letters.
The running
flush left, and
page numbers
should be flush
right. On the
title page, the
should include
the words
For pages
following the
title page,
repeat the
all caps without

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

2

Abstract
The
abstract is
a brief
summary of
the paper,
allowing
quickly
review the
main points
and
purpose of
the paper.
The
abstract
should be
between
150-250
words.
Abbreviations
and
acronyms
used in the
paper
should be
defined in
the
abstract.

This paper explores four published articles that report on results from research conducted
on online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships and their relationship to
computer-mediated communication (CMC). The articles, however, vary in their
definitions and uses of CMC. Butler, and Kraut (2002) suggest that face-to-face (FtF)
interactions are more effective than CMC, defined and used as “email,” in creating
feelings of closeness or intimacy. Other articles define CMC differently and, therefore,
offer different results. This paper examines Cummings et al.’s research in relation to
three other research articles to suggest that all forms of CMC should be studied in order
to fully understand how CMC influences online and offline relationships.

The word
“Abstract”
should be
centered
and typed
in 12 point
Times New
Roman. Do
not indent
the first
line of the
abstract
paragraph.
All other
paragraphs
in the
paper
should be
indented.

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

3

Online Communication Definitions Effect on Relationship Research
Numerous studies have been conducted on various facets of Internet relationships,
The introduction presents
the problem
that the
paper
See the OWL
resources on
introductions:
http://owl.en
glish.purdue.e
du/owl/resou
rce/724/01/

The title of
the paper is
centered
and not
bolded.

focusing on the levels of intimacy, closeness, different communication modalities, and
the frequency of use of CMC. However, contradictory results are suggested within this
research mostly because only certain aspects of CMC are investigated, for example, email
only. Cummings, Butler, and Kraut (2002) suggest that FtF interactions are more
effective than CMC (read: email) in creating feelings of closeness or intimacy, while
other studies suggest the opposite. In order to understand how both online (Internet) and
offline (non-Internet) relationships are affected by CMC, all forms of CMC should be
studied. This paper examines Cummings et al.’s research against other CMC research to
propose that additional research be conducted to better understand how online
communication effects relationships.

In-text
citations
include the
author’s/
authors’
name/s and
the
publication
year.
The
publication
year and
the not
page
number is
used,
because
APA users
are
concerned
with the
date of the
article (the
more
current the
better).

In Cummings et al.’s (2002) summary article reviewing three empirical studies on
online social relationships, it was found that CMC, especially email, was less effective
than FtF contact in creating and maintaining close social relationships. Two of the three
reviewed studies focusing on communication in non-Internet and Internet relationships
mediated by FtF, phone, or email modalities found that the frequency of each modality’s
use was significantly linked to the strength of the particular relationship (Cummings et
al., 2002). The strength of the relationship was predicted best by FtF and phone
communication, as participants rated email as an inferior means of maintaining personal
relationships as compared to FtF and phone contacts (Cummings et al., 2002).

If an article
has three
to five
authors,
write out all
of the
authors’
names the
first time
they
appear.
Then use
the first
author’s
last name
followed by
“et al.”

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

4

Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed an additional study conducted in 1999 by the
HomeNet project. In this project, Kraut, Mukhopadhyay, Szczypula, Kiesler, and Scherlis
(1999) compared the value of using CMC and non-CMC to maintain relationships with
partners. They found that participants corresponded less frequently with their Internet
partner (5.2 times per month) than with their non-Internet partner (7.2 times per month)
(as cited in Cummings et al., 2002). This difference does not seem significant, as it is
only two times less per month. However, in additional self-report surveys, participants
responded feeling more distant, or less intimate, towards their Internet partner than their
non-Internet partner. This finding may be attributed to participants’ beliefs that email is
an inferior mode of personal relationship communication.
Intimacy is necessary in the creation and maintenance of relationships, as it is
defined as the sharing of a person’s innermost being with another person, i.e., selfdisclosure (Hu, Wood, Smith, & Westbrook, 2004). Relationships are facilitated by the
reciprocal self-disclosing between partners, regardless of non-CMC or CMC. Cummings
et al.’s (2002) reviewed results contradict other studies that research the connection
between intimacy and relationships through CMC.
Hu et al. (2004) studied the relationship between the frequency of Instant
Messenger (IM) use and the degree of perceived intimacy among friends. The use of IM
instead of email as a CMC modality was studied because IM supports a non-professional
environment favoring intimate exchanges (Hu et al., 2004). Their results suggest that a
positive relationship exists between the frequency of IM use and intimacy, demonstrating

Use two
spaces
after a
period
throughout

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

5

that participants feel closer to their Internet partner as time progresses through this CMC
modality.
Similarly, Underwood and Findlay (2004) studied the effect of Internet
relationships on primary, specifically non-Internet relationships and the perceived
intimacy of both. In this study, self-disclosure, or intimacy, was measured in terms of
shared secrets through the discussion of personal problems. Participants reported a
significantly higher level of self-disclosure in their Internet relationship as compared to
their primary relationship. In contrast, the participants’ primary relationships were
reported as highly self-disclosed in the past, but the current level of disclosure was
perceived to be lower (Underwood & Findlay, 2004). This result suggests participants
turned to the Internet in order to fulfill the need for intimacy in their lives.
In further support of this finding, Tidwell and Walther (2002) hypothesized CMC
participants employ deeper self-disclosures than FtF participants in order to overcome the
limitations of CMC, e.g., the reliance on nonverbal cues. It was found that CMC partners
engaged in more frequent intimate questions and disclosures than FtF partners in order to
overcome the barriers of CMC. In their study, Tidwell and Walther (2002) measured the
perception of a relationship’s intimacy by the partner of each participant in both the CMC
and FtF conditions. The researchers found that the participants’ partners stated their
CMC partner was more effective in employing more intimate exchanges than their FtF
partner, and both participants and their partners rated their CMC relationship as more
intimate than their FtF relationship.

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
A Level 2
should be
flush left
and bolded.
If you use
more than
two levels
of
consult
section
3.02 of the
APA manual
(6th ed.) or
the OWL
resource on
APA
http://owl.
english.pur
due.edu/ow
l/resource/
560/16/

6

Discussion
In 2002, Cummings et al. stated that the evidence from their research conflicted
with other data examining the effectiveness of online social relationships. This statement
is supported by the aforementioned discussion of other research. There may be a few
possible theoretical explanations for these discrepancies. First, one reviewed study by
Cummings et al. (2002) examined only email correspondence for their CMC modality.
Therefore, the study is limited to only one mode of communication among other
alternatives, e.g., IM as studied by Hu et al. (2004). Because of its many personalized
features, IM provides more personal CMC. For example, it is in real time without delay,
voice-chat and video features are available for many IM programs, and text boxes can be
personalized with the user’s picture, favorite colors and text, and a wide variety of

Because all
research
has its
limitations,
it is
important
to discuss
the
limitations
of articles
under
examination.

emoticons, e.g., :). These options allow for both an increase in self-expression and the
ability to overcompensate for the barriers of CMC through customizable features, as
stated in Tidwell and Walther (2002). Self-disclosure and intimacy may result from IM’s
individualized features, which are not as personalized in email correspondence.
In addition to the limitations of email, Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed studies
that focused on international bank employees and college students. It is possible the
participants’ CMC through email was used primarily for business, professional, and
school matters and not for relationship creation or maintenance. In this case, personal
self-disclosure and intimacy levels are expected to be lower for non-relationship
interactions, as this communication is primarily between boss and employee or student

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION

7

and professor. Intimacy is not required, or even desired, for these professional
relationships.
Instead of professional correspondence, however, Cummings et al.’s (2002)
review of the HomeNet project focused on already established relationships and CMC’s
effect on relationship maintenance. The HomeNet researchers’ sole dependence on email
communication as CMC may have contributed to the lower levels of intimacy and
closeness among Internet relationships as compared to non-Internet relationships (as cited
in Cummings et al., 2002). The barriers of non-personal communication in email could
be a factor in this project, and this could lead to less intimacy among these Internet
partners. If alternate modalities of CMC were studied in both already established and
professional relationships, perhaps these results would have resembled those of the
previously mentioned research.
In order to gain a complete understanding of CMC’s true effect on both online
and offline relationships, it is necessary to conduct a study that examines all aspects of
CMC. This includes, but is not limited to, email, IM, voice-chat, video-chat, online
journals and diaries, online social groups with message boards, and chat rooms. The
effects on relationships of each modality may be different, and this is demonstrated by
the discrepancies in intimacy between email and IM correspondence. As each mode of
communication becomes more prevalent in individual’s lives, it is important to examine
the impact of all modes of CMC on online and offline relationship formation,
maintenance, and even termination.

The
conclusion
restates
the
problem
the paper
and can
offer areas
for further
research.
See the
OWL
resource on
conclusions:
http://owl.
english.pur
due.edu/ow
l/resource/
724/04/

VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
Start the
reference
list on a
new page,
center the
title
“References,” and
alphabetize
the entries.
Do not
underline or
italicize the
title.
Doublespace all
entries.
Every
article
mentioned
in the
paper
should have
an entry.

8

References
Cummings, J. N., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social
relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108.
Hu, Y., Wood, J. F., Smith, V., & Westbrook, N. (2004). Friendships through IM:
Examining the relationship between instant messaging and intimacy. Journal of
Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(1), 38-48.
Tidwell, L. C., & Walther, J. B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on
disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one
another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28(3), 317-348.
Underwood, H., & Findlay, B. (2004). Internet relationships and their impact on primary
relationships. Behaviour Change, 21(2), 127-140.

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