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| September 15, 2020

 Goal Types and Categories” Please respond to the following:

Compare and contrast behavioral goal and soft goals. Provide four examples to support your points. 
Propose five functional goals and five non-functional goals. Propose how you would determine if a goal should be classified under the functional category or the non-functional category.

Classmates:
 
Compare and contrast behavioral goal and soft goals. Provide four examples to support your points.
Behavioral goals and soft goals are two types of goals or prescriptive statements of intent.  These statements of intent can be requirements, if they are handled by the software agents of the system, or expectations, if they handled by agents outside the software but within the system.  These agents can be users, software, and/or hardware, playing specific roles in the system (Lamsweerde, 2009). 
A behavioral goal is a prescriptive statement that prescribes an intended set of system behaviors controlled by agents of the system, which control a sequence of state transitions (Lamsweerde, 2009).  Behavioral goals are different than soft goals because they prescribe system behaviors where as soft goals are preferences of alternative system behaviors.  For example, behavioral goal can be an achieve goal, which defines an intended behavior with a target condition, such as Achieve[ItemShipped]: if item ordered, then sooner or later item is shipped.  Behavioral goals can also be maintain goals which defines when a specific condition is always true.  For example, maintain[ItemShipped]: ifitem paid, then always ship the item.
A soft goal is a preference among some alternative system behaviors (Lamsweerde, 2009).   For example, workload of students should be challenging but doable as possible.  Papers should be intellectually stimulating but accomplishable as possible.  Soft goals come as either improve soft goals or maximize soft goals and can be used as criteria for selecting one system option versus another one.  However, soft goals cannot be established clearly because there are no specific system behaviors that will satisfy the goal in isolation.  As a result, soft goals are defined to be more satisfied by some system behaviors rather than others (Lamsweerde, 2009).
Propose five functional goals and five non-functional goals. Propose how you would determine if a goal should be classified under the functional category or the non-functional category.
Functional and non-functional goals define intentions, quality, or constraints of a system. A functional goal defines an intent of a system service. Five functional goals might be: keep passengers aware of train delays, help students manage APA reference citations (Microsoft Word), calculate analytic hierarchy process prioritization, notify users of new friend posts (Facebook), and alert driver when too close to the next car.  A functional goal can be a satisfaction goal that satisfies an agent request, information goal that keeps an agent informed, or a stimulus-response goal that provides an appropriate response to some event (Lamsweerde, 2009).  It can also be discerned by analyzing a statement and determining whether it has keywords, such as “should be” or “shall.”
A non-functional goal states some quality or constraint.  For example, a car should follow no more than three car lengths from the car in front, a CPU temperature shall no higher than 80 degrees Fahrenheit under heavy load, personal data shall never be disclosed with proper authorization, social security numbers may never be disclosed, and a mission critical server shall never be unavailable without a backup server.  Non-functional goals can be found by analyzing a statement and determining whether it is describing a quality characteristic, constraint characteristic, and/or reliability characteristic.
A recommended method of classifying goals as either function or non-functional is by discerning whether a statement is prescribing an intent of the system (functional) or a quality or constraint (non-functional).  In order to figure this out, I would analyze the statement to see if it has keywords such as “should be” or “shall.”  This would let me know right away that it is a functional goal.
References
Lamsweerde, A. V. (2009). Requirements Engineering: From System Goals to UML Models to Software Specifications. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://strayer.vitalsource.com/#/books/978EUDTE00270/

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