Chapter 14—MOTIVATING ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS

| March 13, 2016

Question

81. Kathy Smith is the manager of a clothing store in Richmond, Virginia. Kathy’s strategy for reinforcing employees is to provide reinforcement after a fixed number of occurrences of a desired behavior. Kathy’s strategy is an illustration of a __________ schedule.

a.

continuous-interval

b.

continuous-ratio

c.

variable-ratio

d.

fixed-interval

e.

fixed-ratio

82. A __________ reinforcement schedule administers reinforcements at random or varying times that cannot be predicted by employees.

a.

variable-ratio

b.

continuous-interval

c.

fixed-interval

d.

variable-interval

e.

fixed-ratio

83. Which of the following reinforcement schedules is correctly matched with its form of reinforcement?

a.

fixed interval/reward given at variable amounts of output

b.

fixed interval/reward given at varying times

c.

variable interval/reward given on fixed time basis

d.

variable ratio/reward given at varying times

e.

variable ratio/reward given at variable amounts of output

84. Critics of __________ charge that it is essentially bribery and that workers are already paid for performance.

a.

goal-setting

b.

behavior modification

c.

total quality management

d.

employee empowerment

e.

equity

85. You are a manager and your employees know that you do not like them to waste time. Consequently, even when they do not have anything to do (assume that this is really true), they try to “look busy” when you are around because you will be angry with them if they are not busy. What does this represent, based on Reinforcement Theory?

a.

positive reinforcement.

b.

avoidance learning.

c.

self-actualization.

d.

fixed intervals.

e.

goal-setting.

86. The employees of GE/Durham were organized around self-managed teams because company officials believed that by sharing decision-making power, with them, the company would enjoy higher productivity, cost savings, and fewer worker complaints. This thinking by GE can best be described by which of the following?

a.

goal-setting

b.

participative management

c.

equity theory

d.

behavior modification

e.

reinforcement theory

87. __________ is an umbrella term for programs where employees have an opportunity for involvement in the workplace beyond the scope of their jobs.

a.

Goal-setting

b.

Participative management

c.

Equity theory

d.

Behavior modification

e.

Reinforcement theory

88. When employees share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate supervisors, the process is called

a.

goal-setting.

b.

participative management.

c.

total quality management.

d.

behavior modification.

e.

equity theory.

89. John Franklin’s company has increased the amount of control and discretion its employees have over their jobs. This is known as

a.

empowering employees.

b.

employee motivation.

c.

employee reinforcing.

d.

behavior modification.

e.

equity theory.

90. Which of the following, according to the text, is NOT likely to be true?

a.

Money has to be desired by the employee engaged in the desired behavior.

b.

Profit-sharing programs frequently do not motivate individual performance.

c.

Overall, money tends to be associated with productive behavior.

d.

When employees believe that a certain amount of money is an entitlement, money no longer may be motivational.

e.

Money may motivate behavior that is not productive for an organization when people perceive that it is tied to unwanted behavior.

91. In situations where money does not motivate productive behavior, the reasons are that: proper behavior has not been defined; there are poor measures or no measures of productive behavior; and

a.

the desired behavior does not bring recognition to the employee.

b.

the assigned work is routine and monotonous.

c.

there are labor relations issues in the workplace.

d.

the required employee skills have not been properly taught.

e.

the amount of money is too small to make a difference.

92. It is common for managers to experience difficulty in getting the team members to work together as a true team in organizations. The common reason identified by the text for this situation is that

a.

many managers are unable to relinquish their authority to allow teams to function as a separate unit within the organization.

b.

the reward system is established to reward individual performance rather than the team’s performance.

c.

many of the employing organizations do not fully support team activities.

d.

labor unions have a tendency to discourage team performance within organizations.

e.

most managers have not been adequately trained to deal with the dynamic independent human behaviors that emphasize individualistic over collectivistic values.

93. Which one of the following statements is true?

a.

Overall, cross-cultural differences do not affect the creative and productive characteristics inherent in the human species.

b.

Managers in countries such as Chile and Portugal display the same high need for achievement as in the United States.

c.

Managers in New Zealand appear to follow an achievement pattern different from that of the United States.

d.

In their corporate life, the Japanese show great dependency and are highly conforming. These characteristics can inhibit creativity and innovation.

e.

Managers in Anglo countries tend to be more risk-averse than their counterparts in Japan and China. This situation has resulted in greater competition and innovation in the global market from Japan and China within the last several decades.

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