C403 Operation Art and Design Exam Questions

| December 9, 2015

C403 Operation Art and Design Exam Questions
SITUATION

It is now early September 1942. You are a staff officer with the Combined Chiefs of Staff, European Theater of Operations. As a recent CGSOC graduate, your supervisor has tasked you to review the Norfolk Group’s plan and related documents (Parts 2 and 3). The Combined Chiefs will meet soon to be briefed on the planning thus far to advise President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill on the status of Operation TORCH. Your supervisor’s instructions to you are:

“I want you to review this outline plan and the associated communications (Parts 2 and 3) and give me your assessment of how well TORCH supports the M/NATO theater objectives and how well TORCH includes the main elements of operational art and design. However, to do this correctly you first need to understand the M/NATO environment and situation. Use operational design methodology thinking to understand the North African campaign and how TORCH fits in it. Do not give me a national or European strategy assessment. Answer the questions I have provided, and give me some responses I can give the Combined Chiefs. Remember that TORCH is a major operation subordinate to a larger North African Theater Campaign. The Chiefs will be here in about six hours, so you don’t have much time.”

Requirements are listed below, beginning on page two of this exam.
Read each question carefully!
Section A: Theater Strategic level, the North African Campaign

1. (15 pts) Review the Operational Approach Student AidSlide #7 for this question. Operational Design and the Operational Approach is a process of iterative understanding and problem framing that supports commanders and staffs in their application of operational art with tools and a methodology to conceive of and construct viable approaches to operations and campaigns.” (JP 5-0, III-1). In the context of the Mediterranean/North Africa Theater of Operations (M/NATO), using the contextual background notes and material provided for this exam in Parts 2 and 3, apply operational design thinking as described in JP 5-0 chapter III to answer the following.

a. (5 pts) In your words, describe the operational environment. [Your answer should be one to five sentences.]

b. (5 pts) In your own words, describe the Allies’ M/NATO theater-level desired end state. [Your answer should be one to five sentences.]
c. (5 pts) Concisely describe the problem or obstacle that is preventing the Allies from achieving their end state. [Your answer should be one to five sentences.]
2.(18 pts total) Centers of gravity (COGs) can be derived from an ends, ways, and means analysis of the problem’s ‘system’ and have associated critical factors—critical capabilities, critical requirements, and critical vulnerabilities. You will identify the M/NATO theater-leveladversary CoG and its critical factors. [Do not exceed onetyped, double-spacedpage.]

a.(3 pts) What is the Axis desired end state (not objectives)?[Your answer should be one to five sentences.]

b. (12 pts) Complete the quad chart below. Type your answers into the 4 text boxes; the text boxes will expand to fit your answer.
3. (15 pts total) Describean Operational Approach that explains the Allied theater campaign.“The operational approach reflects understanding of the operational environment and the problem while describing the commander’s visualization of a broad approach for achieving the desired end state” (JP 5-0, pg III-13). [Related doctrine: JP 5-0, Chapters III and IV].

Using the contextual background notes in Part 2 and the documents in Part 3 of this exam, concisely describe in narrative form the operational approach the Allies plan to take in the M/NATO campaign to achieve the desired theater end state. [Do not exceed one typed, double-spaced page.]

Section B: Major Operation. Operation TORCH

4. (10 pts) The focus of a campaign or major operation is the achievement of the military end state “that defines achievement of all military objectives.” Considering the strategic guidance provided to General Eisenhower in the Directive for Commander-in-Chief Allied Expeditionary Force, and based on the TORCH outline plan, what defines the military end state for Operation TORCH? [Do not exceed one-half of a typed, double-spaced page.]

5. (18 pts) Centers of Gravity (COG) are linked to objectives that achieve the military end state. COGs can be derived from an ends, ways, and means analysis and have associated critical factors—critical capabilities, critical requirements, and critical vulnerabilities. You will identify the Allied Center of Gravity for Operation TORCHand its critical factors. [Do not exceed one typed, double-spaced page.]

a.(3 pts)What is the Allied main objective(s) at the operational level for TORCH? [Your answer should be one to five sentences.]

b. (12 pts) Complete the quad chart below. Type your answers into the 4 text boxes; the text boxes will expand to fit your answer.
6. (10 pts) How doesthe TORCH plan, at the Operational level, intend to attack the Theater Strategic-levelenemy COG? Explain. [Do not exceed one-half of a typed, double-spaced page.]
7. (7 points total: 3 pts for listing the decisive points; 4pts for the justification). A decisive point is a geographic place, specific key event, critical factor, or function that, when acted upon, allows commanders to gain a marked advantage over an adversary or contribute materially to achieving success (JP 5-0) . Decisive points (DPs) help determine how to apply friendly critical capabilities (CCs) to exploit enemy critical vulnerabilities (CVs) or defend friendly centers of gravity (COGs). [Do not exceed one typed, double-spaced page.]

a. (3 pts) List THREE decisive points (not necessarily the objectives) you identify as important to achieve TORCH’s military end state [you answered military end state in question #4].

b. (4 pts) Justify these decisive points by linking them to the CRs and CVs of the operational or theater level COGs.

8. (7 points total: 3 pts for listing the culmination points; 4pts for the justification). A culmination point is the point at which a force no longer has the capability to continue its form of operations, offense or defense (JP 5-0). Understanding the concept of culmination is critical to success in operational warfare. It helps operational planners determine those factors or events that could cause either an attacker or defender to fail to achieve its operational objectives (increasing the risk of its eventual defeat). [Do not exceed one typed, double-spaced page.]

a. (3 pts) List possibleevents which might induce Allied culmination of Operation TORCH forces short of achieving their operational objective without being defeated.

b. (4 pts) Briefly explain your selection. Your answer should explain the event and show how this event will cause culmination without attrition by numbers (defeat).

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