Bio156 final exam

| August 14, 2017

BIO156
Introductory Biology for Allied Health
Final Exam
– Part 1
1
of 45
Mendel’s
law of independent assortment states that __________.

chromosomes
sort independently of each other during mitosis and meiosis

genes
sort independently of each other in animals, but not in plants

independent
sorting of genes produces polyploid plants under some circumstances

each
pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during
gamete formation

None of
the choices are correct

Question
2
of 45
Individual
features of all organisms are the result of __________.

genetics

the
environment

genetics
and cytoplasmic determinants

the
environment and individual needs

genetics
and the environment

Question
3
of 45
How many
sex chromosomes are in a human gamete?

one

two

three

four

five

Question
4
of 45
Any gene
located on a sex chromosome __________.

is
called a recessive gene

is
called a sex-linked gene

is
called a dominant allele

will
exhibit pleiotropy

will
exhibit codominance

Question
5
of 45
Why are
sex-linked conditions more common in men than in women?

Men
acquire two copies of the defective gene during fertilization.

Men
need to inherit only one copy of the recessive allele for the condition to be
fully expressed.

Women
simply do not develop the disease regardless of their genetic composition.

The sex
chromosomes are more active in men than in women.

None of
the choices are correct.

Question
6
of 45
A
colorblind woman mates with a man who is not colorblind. All of the sons and
none of the daughters are colorblind. What is the best explanation of this
result?

The
gene for color vision is incompletely dominant to the gene for sex
determination.

The
gene for color vision is completely dominant to the gene for sex
determination.

The
gene for color vision is codominant with the gene for sex determination.

The
gene for color vision is linked to the X chromosome.

The gene
for color vision is linked to the Y chromosome.

Question
7
of 45
Karyotyping
__________.

shows
chromosomes as they appear in metaphase of meiosis II

can
reveal alterations in chromosome number

examines
points of crossing over

reveals
the results of independent orientation of chromosomes during meiosis I

reveals
the presence of cancerous genes

Question
8
of 45
If a
chromosome fragment breaks off and is lost from the original chromosome, the
resulting chromosomal abnormality is called an) __________.

deletion

inversion

translocation

nondisjunction

reciprocal
translocation

Question
9
of 45
If short
hair L) is dominant to long hair l), animals LL and Ll
have the same __________.

genotypes

phenotypes

alleles

genes

chromatids

Question
10
of 45
One of
Mendel’s defining ideas was the theory of segregation. This idea __________.

deals
with the alleles governing two different traits

applies
only to linked genes

applies
only to sex-linked genes

explains
the behavior of a pair of alleles during meiosis

applies
to the partitioning of proteins

Question
11
of 45
If short
hair L) is dominant to long hair l), then what fraction of the
offspring produced by a cross of Ll x ll will be homozygous
dominant?

1/2

1/4

1/3

1/8

None

Question
12
of 45
If a
child belonged to blood Type O, he or she could NOT have been produced by which
set of parents?

Type A
mother and Type B father

Type A
mother and Type O father

Type AB
mother and Type O father

Type O
mother and Type O father

Type B
mother and Type O father

Question
13
of 45
Amniocentesis
involves sampling __________.

the
fetus directly

the
fetal cells floating in the amniotic fluid

sperm

blood
cells

urine

Question
14
of 45
Which of
the following genotypes is said to be homozygous?

AaBB

aaBB

aaBb

aABB

Aabb

Question
15
of 45
Which of
the following is NOT a true statement about genes?

Genes
are located on chromosomes.

Genes
are inherited independently of the chromosomes.

Genes
are arranged in linear sequence on chromosomes.

A gene
is a discrete sequence of DNA on a chromosome.

Genes
code for proteins.

Question
16
of 45
A
karyotype __________.

compares
one set of chromosomes to another

is a
visual display of chromosomes arranged according to size

is a
photograph of cells undergoing mitosis during anaphase

of a
normal human cell shows 48 chromosomes

is a
representation of a cell in apoptosis

Question
17
of 45
A woman
heterozygous for colorblindness an X-linked recessive allele marries a man with
normal color vision. What is the probability that their first child will be
colorblind?

25
percent

50 percent

75
percent

100
percent

0
percent

Question
18
of 45
What
could the children of a colorblind woman and a man with normal vision be?

All
will be colorblind.

None
will be colorblind.

Daughters
will be color-blind and sons will be of normal vision.

Sons
will be colorblind and daughters will be of normal vision.

Half of
the sons will be colorblind and all daughters will be colorblind.

Question
19
of 45
DNA
replication __________.

occurs
by the addition of nucleotides to the end of the DNA molecule

results
in the formation of four new DNA strands

produces
two daughter DNA molecules that are complementary to each other

uses
each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand

begins
when two DNA molecules join together to exchange segments

Question
20
of 45
If one
strand of DNA is CGGTAC, the corresponding strand would be __________.

GCCTAG

CGGTAC

GCCAUC

TAACGT

GCCATG

Question
21
of 45
Which one
of the following sequences best describes the flow of information when a gene
directs the synthesis of a cellular component?

RNA ?
DNA ? RNA ? protein

DNA ?
RNA ? protein

protein
? RNA ? DNA

DNA ?
amino acid ? RNA ? protein

DNA ?
tRNA ? mRNA ? protein

Question
22
of 45
Which one
of the following best describes the sequence of events of translation?

codon
recognition ? translocation ? peptide bond formation ? termination

peptide
bond formation ? codon recognition ? translocation ? termination

codon
recognition ? peptide bond formation ? translocation ? termination

codon
recognition ? peptide bond formation ? termination ? translocation

peptide
bond formation ? translocation ? codon recognition ? termination

Question
23
of 45
In DNA,
correct complementary base pairing would occur between __________.

cytosine
and uracil

adenine
and guanine

adenine
and uracil

adenine
and thymine

cytosine
and adenine

Question
24
of 45
Which of
the following is NOT true of DNA polymerase?

Adds
new nucleotides to a developing strand.

Is an
enzyme.

Creates
the energy it needs by breaking adenine-guanine bonds.

Proofreads
DNA strands to see that they are correct.

Is a
protein.

Question
25
of 45
The
movement of DNA fragments in a gel electrophoresis experiment is based on
__________.

the
amount of carbon in the fragment

the
size and charge of the molecules

the
number of organic rings in the fragment

their
ease in going into a salt solution

the
sugars in the fragment

Question
26
of 45
Which of
the following is the most precise explanation of how genes work?

One
gene controls one complete physical characteristic.

Human
metabolic defects may arise because of absent or defective enzymes.

One
gene controls one amino acid.

One
gene codes for the amino acid sequence of one polypeptide chain.

Genes
are made of RNA.

Question
27
of 45
The form
of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is
assembled is called __________.

messenger
RNA

nuclear
RNA

ribosomal
RNA

transfer
RNA

siRNA

Question
28
of 45
Which
nucleotide base is found in RNA but not in DNA?

thymine

deoxyribose

uracil

guanine

adenine

Question
29
of 45
Transcription
__________.

occurs
on the surface of the ribosome

is the
final process in the assembly of a protein

occurs
during the synthesis of any type of RNA from a DNA template

is
catalyzed by DNA polymerase

occurs
in the mitochondria

Question
30
of 45
Which of
the following could NOT be an RNA transcript?

AUGCGU

ATGCGT

UACGCA

UAGCGU

GGCUAU

Question
31
of 45
Which of
the following kinds of RNA is directly responsible for carrying specific amino
acids to the ribosomes in protein synthesis?

tRNA

hnRNA

rRNA

mRNA

snRNA

Question
32
of 45
What kind
of virus is HIV, the AIDS virus)?

a
herpes virus

a
paramyxovirus

a
retrovirus

a
complex virus

a
provirus

Question
33
of 45
HIV
delivers its greatest damage to __________.

the
adrenal glands

pancreatic
cells

nervous
tissue

gametes

white
blood cells

Question
34
of 45
HIV is
responsible for _____.

PKU

TB

STD

CPR

AIDS

Question
35
of 45
Restriction
enzymes __________.

edit
proteins

cut DNA
at specific sites

stop
transcription

bind
together strands of DNA

bind
RNA fragments together

Question
36
of 45
Gel
electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their __________.

nucleotide
sequence

solubility
in water

ability
to bind to mRNA

solubility
in the gel

size

Question
37
of 45
Which of
the following areas of research will benefit from the human genome project?

understanding
human evolution

understanding
human embryonic development

improving
the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of heart disease, cancer, and other
common ailments

All of
the choices are correct.

None of
the choices are correct.

Question
38
of 45
Which of
the following best defines the term transgenic animal?

an
animal that is the first of its kind to bear a particular allele

an
animal in which a genetic defect has been corrected using recombinant DNA
therapy

an
animal containing a gene from a third “parent,” which may even be
another species

an
animal containing genes from both its parents

an
animal containing genes from three or more species

Question
39
of 45
Genetic
variation within a population is developed and maintained because of
__________.

random
mutations

recombination
because of sexual reproduction

crossing
over

All of
the above

None of
these are valid ways of creating variation

Question
40
of 45
The prime
goal of current work in genetic engineering is to __________.

eliminate
antibiotic resistance in bacteria

isolate
disease-causing plasmids in bacteria

modify
cells to correct a defect or produce a functional product

transfer
genes from viruses to other cells

study
only cancer and bring about a cure

Question
41
of 45
Viruses
that infect bacteria are ______.

retroviruses

enveloped
viruses

emerging
viruses

proviruses

bacteriophages

Question
42
of 45
Which of
these can act as a vector to introduce new genes into a cell?

humulin

GM

PCR

clones

plasmids

Question
43
of 45
Which of
the following is a major category of animal tissue?

epithelial

plasma

bone

cardiac

neurons

Question
44
of 45
Maintaining
the volume and composition of body fluids is the direct responsibility of which
of the following systems?

integumentary

immune

digestive

urinary

respiratory

Question
45
of 45
Which of
the following organs is NOT in the abdominal cavity?

stomach

liver

intestine

appendix

heart

Part2
1
of 45
The basic
structural and functional part of the kidney is the __________.

Bowman’s
capsule

nephron

glomerulus

urinary
bladder

ascending
aorta

Question
2
of 45
Which one
of the following types of tissue stores fat in the body?

blood

cartilage

bone

adipose

fibrous
connective tissue

Question
3
of 45
Which of
the following is true of a typical skeletal muscle?

Contraction
is involuntary.

It is
found in the walls of organs such as the digestive tract.

Its
fibers do not have a striped appearance under the microscope.

It can
be enlarged by exercise.

It is
only found in heart tissue.

Question
4
of 45
Which
type of tissue forms a communication and coordination system within the body?

nervous

blood

epithelial

connective

muscle

Question
5
of 45
Homeostasis
__________.

is the
maintenance of a constant internal state

only
comes into play when you are ill

is a
pathological condition

is the
maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment

is the
way the internal environment influences the external environment

Question
6
of 45
What are
the four fundamental types of body tissues?

connective,
cardiac, nervous, and adipose tissue.

connective,
epithelial, nervous, and muscle tissue.

epithelial,
hormonal, cellular, and bone tissue.

epithelial,
glandular, muscle, and nervous tissue.

connective,
neurons, muscle, and cartilage tissue.

Question
7
of 45
What is
the main function of connective tissue?

support

movement

protection

response
to stimuli

covering

Question
8
of 45
Which of
the following is NOT a function of the skin?

protection
from invasion by bacteria

temperature
regulation

sensing
the world around us

protection
from physical injury

production
of hormones promoting tanning

Question
9
of 45
What are
the two main divisions of the skeletal system?

cranial
and axial

vertebral
and appendicular

appendicular
and axial

axial
and articular

articular
and cranial

Question
10
of 45
Which of
the following carry incoming messages toward the cell body of a neuron?

axons

dendrites

actin
filaments

myosin
filaments

supporting
cells

Question
11
of 45
The four
stages of food processing are, in order:

ingestion,
absorption, elimination, digestion

ingestion,
elimination, digestion, absorption

ingestion,
digestion, absorption, elimination

digestion,
absorption, ingestion, elimination

elimination,
absorption, digestion, ingestion

Question
12
of 45
Once an
action potential is triggered, the first major chemical change is __________.

a
reversal of the membrane polarity, with the interior of the cell becoming positive

a
reversal of the membrane polarity, with the interior of the cell becoming
negative

an
increase in the negative charge inside the neuron

an
increase in the positive charge inside the neuron

propagation
of an impulse

Question
13
of 45
The
function of the sphincter at the downstream end of the stomach is to
__________.

retain
acid chime in the stomach until pepsin digestion is complete

release
bile into the duodenum when chime is present

release
pancreatic secretions into the duodenum when chime is present

release
bile and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum when chime is present

release
acid chime into the duodenum in periodic squirts

Question
14
of 45
Muscles
are connected to bones by ______.

thick
filaments

ligaments

tendons

other
muscles

myofibrils

Question
15
of 45
A thick
filament consists of ______.

actin

actin
and regulatory proteins

myosin

myosin
and regulatory filaments

actin
and myosin

Question
16
of 45
When the
wall of the stomach fails to protect itself from erosion by gastric juice, the
result is __________.

heartburn

reverse
peristalsis

a
duodenal ulcer

nausea

a gastric
ulcer

Question
17
of 45
Most
nutrient absorption occurs in which part of the digestive system?

stomach

liver

pancreas

small
intestine

large
intestine

Question
18
of 45
Which of
the following is a junction between two neurons?

Schwann
cell

Chemical
synapse

Node of
Ranvier

Sodium
gate

Polarity
space

Question
19
of 45
Which of
the following organs of the digestive system is different from the other four
because it does NOT produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?

stomach

liver

esophagus

pancreas

Important
secretions are released by all of the above organs.

Question
20
of 45
Outnumbering
neurons by up to 50 to 1, which cells protect, insulate, and reinforce neurons?

sensory
cells

motor
cells

axon
cells

satellite
cells

supporting
cells

Question
21
of 45
All veins
carry __________.

blood
toward the heart

interstitial
fluid

blood
away from the heart

oxygen-rich
blood

oxygen-poor
blood

Question
22
of 45
Trace the
path of a red blood cell in a circuit that takes it from the capillary bed of
the right kidney to the capillary bed of the left kidney.

capillary
bed of right kidney….venules….veins….right atrium….right ventricle….pulmonary
arteries….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary veins….left atrium….left
ventricle….aorta….arteries….arterioles…. capillary bed of left kidney

capillary
bed of right kidney….venules….veins….right atrium….right ventricle….
pulmonary veins….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary arteries….left atrium….left
ventricle…..aorta….arteries….arterioles….capillary bed of left kidney

capillary
bed of right kidney….venules….v eins…..left atrium….left ventricle….
pulmonary arteries….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary veins….right atrium….
right ventricle….aorta….arteries…..arterioles….capillary bed of left kidney

capillary
bed of right kidney….arterioles….arteries….aorta….right atrium….right
ventricle….pulmonary arteries….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary veins….left
atrium ….left ventricle….veins….venules….capillary bed of left kidney

capillary
bed of right kidney….venules….veins….left atrium….left ventricle…. pulmonary
veins….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary arteries….right atrium…. right
ventricle….aorta….arteries….arterioles….capillary bed of left kidney

Question
23
of 45
When you
examine fluid that you have drawn from a blood vessel, you find that it is
relatively high in carbon dioxide and waste products. Assuming that the fluid
comes from a healthy individual, you conclude that the blood vessel from which
you have drawn the blood could have been __________.

a
venule

an
artery

an
arteriole

the
aorta

either
an artery or an arteriole

Question
24
of 45
White
blood cells play a particularly important role in __________.

carrying
oxygen

carrying
carbon dioxide

blood
clotting

hemoglobin
transport

fighting
infections

Question
25
of 45
Temperature
regulation, hormone distribution, and exchanging nutrients and wastes with the
interstitial fluid are all functions of the _____ system.

respiratory

digestive

immune

circulatory

nervous

Question
26
of 45
Animals
need oxygen because it __________.

plays a
role in obtaining energy from food

counterbalances
the CO2 in the atmosphere

helps
animals synthesize proteins

is
necessary to make CO2

is
needed to deliver hemoglobin to all the cells in the body

Question
27
of 45
In the
human respiratory system, gas exchange occurs across the cells of the _____.

diaphragm

trachea

bronchi

pharynx

alveoli

Question
28
of 45
When you
hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to
the urge to breathe again?

rising
oxygen level

rising
carbon dioxide level

falling
oxygen level

falling
carbon dioxide level

both
rising carbon dioxide level and falling oxygen levels

Question
29
of 45
Which of
the following is one of the body’s first lines of defense against infection?

a group
of nonspecific antibodies

several
nonspecific amino acid toxins

several
nonspecific obstacles such as skin and mucous membranes

increased
production of certain hormones and changes in the blood circulation

an
increasing in the breathing rate

Question
30
of 45
When you
cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following
chemical alarm signals?

interferon

complement

histamine

pyrogens

anti-interferon

Question
31
of 45
Why do
diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?

The
rapid multiplication of the invading microorganisms results in extra heat
production.

The
inflammatory and immune responses result in extra heat production.

The
invading microorganisms trick the brain’s temperature control center into
raising the temperature so they can grow better.

The
brain’s temperature control center responds to inflammation by creating a hot
environment unfavorable to microorganisms.

Fevers
insure that you will stay in bed longer so that your body can recover from
the illness.

Question
32
of 45
The
appendix, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen are all parts of the __________
system.

immune

circulatory

excretory

renal

digestive

Question
33
of 45
Antibodies
__________.

are
shaped like the letter B

are
generalists in that any antibody can bind to any antigen

consist
of three polypeptide chains

assist
in destroying particular antigens

All of
the above are true

Question
34
of 45
Hormones
regulate __________.

growth

reproduction

water
balance

metabolism

all of
the above

Question
35
of 45
Which of
the following best describes the relationship of insulin to glucagon?

They
work together to prepare the body to deal with stress.

Insulin
stimulates the pancreas to secrete glucagon.

High
levels of insulin inhibit pancreatic secretion of glucagon.

They
are antagonistic hormones.

Insulin
is a steroid hormone; glucagon is a protein hormone.

Question
36
of 45
What
moves the human egg through the oviduct?

the
beating of the egg’s cilia

the
beating of the egg’s flagella

rhythmic
contractions of the oviduct

rhythmic
contractions of the uterus

the
beating of cilia in the oviduct

Question
37
of 45
In a
human male reproductive system:

a
circumcision removes a portion of the scrotum.

the vas
deferens conducts sperm between the testis and epididymis.

the
sperm travel through the urethra during ejaculation.

sperm
mature in the prostate gland.

sperm
are produced in the bladder and released through the scrotum.

Question
38
of 45
A vaccine
contains __________.

a
killed pathogen

weakened
pathogen

non-infective
fragments of a pathogen

all of
the above may be used in a vaccine

Vaccines
only contain genetically-modified virus particles

Question
39
of 45
Oxygen
moves from the alveoli to the bloodstream __________.

because
the concentration of oxygen is greater in alveoli than in the blood

mainly
due to the activity of carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells

because
there is more oxygen in the blood than in the bloodstream

through
active transport through the cell membrane

to
escape from the body as a waste product

Question
40
of 45
Which of
the following is NOT a true statement about the human female?

She
produces all the eggs that she ever will before she is born.

She
will normally produce more gametes than her male counterpart.

It is
possible that more than one egg will be released at ovulation.

The
process of meiosis may take 30 to 50 years to complete.

The
ovary is the primary reproductive organ.

Question
41
of 45
Most of
the oxygen in the blood is transported by __________.

platelets

plasma

platelets

hemoglobin

serotonin

Question
42
of 45
The
correct term to describe the production of the human sperm is __________.

spermogenerator

oogenesis

spermatogenesis

sperm-production

gametogeneric

Question
43
of 45
In vitro
fertilization __________.

can be
used to select the sex of an embryo

permits
the screening of embryos for genetic defects

can use
eggs that have been frozen

all of
the above

none of
the above

Question
44
of 45
A
vasectomy __________.

prevents
the production of sperm in the testes

prevents
the production of semen

prevents
the movement of sperm into the urethra

prevents
a man from having an erection

is an
effective method to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases

Question
45
of 45
Why are
human testes located in an external sac rather than in the abdominal cavity?

to
shorten the distance that semen must travel during ejaculation

to
shorten the distance that sperm must swim during insemination

so the
testes can be kept at a constant temperature

so the
testes can be kept cooler than the body’s interior

so the
testes can enlarge at sexual maturityPart3What are the
four main types of tissue? What are the characteristics of each type and how do
they function in the body? Give an example of where you would find each type in
the body.

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