# BIO Assignment 4.3 – Hands-on Laboratory

Evolution and Natural Selection Lab (50 points)Type your results and responses to questions in this report and submit. Please answer allquestions in full sentences.Materials: Bag of 15 bean soup (dry beans), cup, 2 Paper lunch bags, paper and pencil.1. We shall simulate genetic drift and effects of a bottleneck on genetic drift in thissimulation. (15 points)Review “Evolution Occurs in Several Ways”, Chapter 11.6 in your textbook.Instructions:Count out 25 speckled beans, 25 black beans, 25 white beans and 25 red beans (itis easiest if you choose beans of the same size and put in container. The beansrepresent different alleles (Unit 3). This means each type of bean makes up 25% ofthe total number of beans (or alleles) (25/100 = 0.25).Write two hypotheses answering the two questions below (5 points):a. How would the ratio of bean phenotypes change if you randomly pick 40 beansfrom the container? Will the ratio change significantly in each repetition(generation)?b. How would the ratio of bean phenotypes change if you only pick 10 beans fromthe container? Will the ratio change significantly in each repetition (generation)?Method:Now take 40 beans from the counter and count the different phenotypes black, white,red and speckled. Write the results in the data chart, then return the beans to thecontainer, shake to mix, and repeat the experiment two more times. Next, take only10 beans from the container. Count the different beans and add the data to the chart.Return the beans to the container and repeat three more times. Complete the datachart below.Results (5 points):Large Sample (40 beans):Bean(Phenotype)OriginalPopulation#%Exp #1#%Exp #2#%Exp #3#%Small Sample (10 beans):BLR(Phenotype)OriginalPopulation#%Exp #1#%Exp #2#%Exp #3#%Were your hypotheses correct?Answer the following questions (5 points):I.What was the range of ratios of bean phenotypes in the large sample? In thesmall sample?II.How would genetic drift affect the gene pool in a genetic bottleneck?III.Could genetic drift lead to evolution of new species? Consider ratios ofphenotypes of each small sample. Under which condition would this changelead to speciation?2. Simulation of Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (20 points)Review “Evolution is Inevitable in Real Populations ”, Chapter 11. 3 in your textbook.Also, web site: http://www.nfstc.org/pdi/Subject07/pdi_s07_m01_02.htm (click theglasses for more help)We shall simulate the frequency of two alleles in a population in Hardy WeinbergEquilibrium over several generations.Instructions:This time the beans will represent alleles (remember we carry two alleles for eachtrait or gene, one from the father and one from the mother)The red bean represents a dominant allele and the white bean represents arecessive allele. The homozygous dominant individual is represented by 2 redbeans, the homozygous recessive individual is represented by 2 white beans, andheterozygous individuals are represented by one red bean and one white bean.MethodCount and set aside 60 red beans and 40 white beans. Label one paper bag maleand the other paper bag female. Divide beans evenly into bags (30 red beans and 20white beans into each bag). You will grab one bean from each bag for the allelecombination in the F1 generation, for a total of 50 pairs (50 individuals) in the F1generation.Preparation (5 points):Calculate the frequency of p (dominant allele – red) and q (recessive allele – white) inpopulation (see textbook chapter 11. 3B).p=red beans/total # beansq=white beans/total # beansp+q=?2pq = ?P2 = ?q2= ?What does p2, q2 and 2pq represent?Write a hypothesis answering the following question:a. If the population is in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, what would be thefrequency of both alleles in the F1, F2 and F3 generations?Experiment 1 (5 points)Remove one bean from each bag blindly and set the pair aside. Repeat until allbeans are paired. This represents one generation.1.1 Count:Red pairs (dominant homozygous ) = p2White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.P2 + 2pq + q2 = 1Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) = ?q = (2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans)=?p+q= ?Return beans to bags and repeat the pairing two times, recording p2, 2pq and q2 eachtime.1.2 Count:Red pairs (dominant homozygous ) = p2White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.P2 + 2pq + q2 = 1Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) = ?q = (2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans)=?p+q= ?1.3 Count:Red pairs (dominant homozygous ) = p2White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.P2 + 2pq + q2 = 1Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) = ?q = (2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans)=?p+q= ?Answer the following questions:I. How much did your experimental data differ from the calculated data?II. Do you accept or reject your hypothesis?Experiment 2 (5 points)Remove one bean from each bag blindly and set the pair aside. Repeat 10 times.This represents a loss of 10% of the population (migration).Now repeat steps of experiment 1.2.1 Count:Red pairs (dominant homozygous ) = p2White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.P2 + 2pq + q2 = 1Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) = ?q = (2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) = ?p+q= ?Repeat three times, each time removing 10% of the pairs, so remove 9 and 8 pairsrespectively. Keep the changing total number of beans in mind when calculatingallele (bean) frequencies.II.2 CountRed pairs (dominant homozygous ) = p2White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) = ?q = (2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?p+q= ?II.3 CountRed pairs (dominant homozygous ) = p2White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.Calculate, p and q.p+q=?Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) = ?q = (2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?p+q= ?Answer the following questions:I. How much did your experimental data differ from the calculated data?II. Do you accept or reject your hypothesis?III. Under what conditions is an allele within a population in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?Experiment 3 (5 points)Remove one bean from each bag blindly and set the pair aside. Repeat until all beans are paired. Remove all white pairs (lost to predation) This represents natural selection.3.1 CountRed pairs (dominant homozygous ) = p2White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) = ?q = (2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?p+q= ?Write a hypothesis answering the following question:What will happen to p and q if this selective pressure repeats in the next generation?Work through another generation. Divide remaining beans equally and return to bags, and repeat the experiment.III.2CountRed pairs (dominant homozygous ) = p2White pairs (recessive homozygous) = q2Red-white pairs (heterozygous) = 2pq.Calculate p = (2x red pairs + red-white pairs)/ total number of alleles (beans) = ?q = (2x white pairs + red-white pairs)/total number of alleles (beans) =?p+q= ?Answer the following questions:I. How much did your experimental data differ from the calculated data?II. Do you accept or reject your hypothesis?III. How does natural selection affect allele frequencies?3. Summary (15 points)Answer the following question in full sentences, at least 150 to 200 words.What did you learn in this lab about the effects of population size, migration and natural selection on allele frequencies in populations? How do allele frequencies relate to evolution of species?