The theater is one of the best means of art and entertainment, which brings cultural enrichment. It uses live performers on stage to express different plays. From the times of its appearance theater has changed a lot. There were especially many transformations in modern times. The only genres seen in the theater of ancient times were tragedy and comedy, whereas nowadays there are lots of contemporary genres and styles. Even the types of theaters vary from classical to musical lines.
People have always liked visiting theaters for relaxing, entertaining and just having a good time. Our country has lots of theaters to offer to its citizens. Everyone can find something suitable for their tastes. People who like dramas go to drama theatres, those who like musical plays can visit opera theaters, so there is always a choice where to go. The theater can be divided into two parts: one is the stage where actors perform their roles, the other is the hall where spectators sit. The hall and the stage are separated by a curtain and orchestra.
Besides, every theater has a cloak-room and a restaurant. Theatres may vary a lot in sizes. Some can host only 50 people, and some are meant for thousands of spectators. For example, the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow can host about 2150 people. The other huge and world-famous theaters are Metropolitan Opera and Broadway Theater in New York, Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Theater La Scala in Italy, Covent Garden in London and several others.
Richard Cumberland (19 February 1732 – 7 May 1811) was an English dramatist and civil servant. In 1771 his hit play The West Indian was first staged. During the American War of Independence he acted as a secret negotiator with Spain in an effort to secure a peace agreement between the two nations. He also edited a short-lived critical journal called The London Review (1809). His plays are often remembered for their sympathetic depiction of colonial characters and others generally considered to be margins of society. Calypso (1779)
The Natural Son (1785), in which Major O’Flaherty who had already figured in The West-Indian, makes his reappearance The Country Attorney (1787)
The Impostors (1789), a comedy of intrigue
The School for Widows (1789)
The Box-Lobby Challenge (1794), a protracted farce
The Jew (1794), a drama, highly effective when the great German actor Theodor Döring played “Sheva” The Wheel of Fortune (1795), in which John Philip Kemble found a celebrated part in the misanthropist Penruddock, who cannot forget but learns to forgive (a character declared by August von Kotzebue to have been stolen from his Menschenh
Ben Jonson (Benjamin Jonson /ˈdʒɒnsən/; c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was a playwright, poet, and literary critic of the seventeenth century, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours. He is best known for thesatirical plays Every Man in His Humour (1598), Volpone, or The Foxe (1605), The Alchemist (1610), and Bartholomew Fayre: A Comedy (1614), and for his lyric poetry; he is generally regarded as the second most important English dramatist, after William Shakespeare, during the reign of James I.
The literary artist Ben Jonson was a classically-educated, well-read, and cultured man of the English Renaissance with an appetite for controversy (personal and political, artistic and intellectual) whose cultural influence was of unparalleled breadth upon the playwrights and the poets of theJacobean era (1603–1625) and of the Caroline era (1625–1642). Plays
A Tale of a Tub, comedy (c. 1596 revised? performed 1633; printed 1640) The Isle of Dogs, comedy (1597, with Thomas Nashe; lost)
The Case is Altered, comedy (c. 1597–98; printed 1609), with Henry Porter and Anthony Munday? Every Man in His Humour, comedy (performed 1598; printed 1601) Every Man out of His Humour, comedy ( performed 1599; printed 1600) Cynthia’s Revels (performed 1600; printed 1601)
The Poetaster, comedy (performed 1601; printed 1602)
Sejanus His Fall, tragedy (performed 1603; printed 1605)
Eastward Ho, comedy (performed and printed 1605), a collaboration with John Marston and George Chapman Volpone, comedy (c. 1605–06; printed 1607)
Epicoene, or the Silent Woman, comedy (performed 1609; printed 1616) The Alchemist, comedy (performed 1610; printed 1612)
Catiline His Conspiracy, tragedy (performed and printed 1611) Bartholomew Fair, comedy (performed 31 October 1614; printed 1631) The Devil is an Ass, comedy (performed 1616; printed 1631)
The Staple of News, comedy (performed Feb. 1626; printed 1631) The New Inn, or The Light Heart, comedy (licensed 19 January 1629; printed 1631) The Magnetic Lady, or Humors Reconciled, comedy (licensed 12 October 1632; printed 1641) The Sad Shepherd, pastoral (c. 1637, printed 1641), unfinished Mortimer his Fall, history (printed 1641), a fragment
Adolphe Philippe d’Ennery or Dennery (17 June 1811 – 25 January 1899) was a French Jewish dramatist and novelist. Contents
4 External links
Born in Paris, his real surname was Philippe. He obtained his first success in collaboration with Charles Desnoyer in Émile, ou le fils d’un pair de France (1831), a drama which was the first of a series of some two hundred pieces written alone or in collaboration with other dramatists. He died in Paris in 1899. Works
Among the best of his works are Gaspard Hauser (1838) with Anicet Bourgeois; Les Bohémiens de Paris (1842) with Eugène Grange; with Mallian, Marie-Jeanne, ou la femme du peuple (1845), in which Madame Dorval obtained a great success; La Case d’Oncle Tom (1853); and Les Deux Orphelines (1875), perhaps his best piece, with Eugène Cormon. The story was adapted in 1921 by D.W. Griffith as the film Orphans of the Storm.
He wrote the libretto for Gounod’s Le tribut de Zamora (1881); with Louis Gallet and Édouard Blau he composed the libretto to Massenet’s Le Cid (1885); and, again in collaboration with Cormon, the librettos of Auber’s operas, Le premier jour de bonheur (1868) and Reved’amour (1869). Other opera librettos include La rose de Terone (1840), Si j’étais roi (1852), Le muletier de Tolède(1854) (on which Michael Balfe’s The Rose of Castille (1857) was based), and À Clichy (1854) by Adolphe Adam, Massenet’s early Don César de Bazan (1872) and Hervé’s La nuit aux soufflets(1884) He prepared for the stage Balzac’s posthumous comedy Mercadet ou le faiseur, presented at the Théâtre du Gymnase Marie Bell in 1851. Reversing the usual order of procedure, d’Ennery adapted some of his plays to the form of novels. Etan Cohen (born March 14, 1974) is an American screenwriter.
1 Life and career
4 External links
Life and career
Born in Israel to an Orthodox Jewish family, Cohen grew up in Efrat and Sharon, Massachusetts. He graduated from the Maimonides School and Harvard College, where he wrote for theHarvard Lampoon. His first produced scripts, in 1995 and 1997, were for Beavis and Butthead, where he was credited as Ethan Cohen. He has since written for other Mike Judge-directed projects, including King of the Hill from 2001 to 2005, and for the feature film Idiocracy in 2006. In the late 1990s he worked on two other television series – the animated Recess and the short lived It’s Like You Know.
After scripting Idiocracy he worked on the hit animated series, American Dad and wrote the episode, “Failure Is Not a Factory-Installed Option”. The American Dad minor character of the same name is named for him. In 2008, Cohen cowrote, along with Ben Stiller and Justin Theroux, the action-comedy film Tropic Thunder. He also wrote Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa. Columbia Pictures hired Etan Cohen to pen the script for Men in Black 3. Other projects he is currently writing include feature films, Candy Land, The Fiance and Project A. On July 10, 2012 it was announced that Cohen is currently writing the script for Ghostbusters
Beavis and Butt-head (1995–1997)
It’s Like, You Know (1999)
King of the Hill (2001–2005)
American Dad (2006)
My Wife Is Retarded (2007) (also directed)
Tropic Thunder (2008)
Harvey Richards (2008)
Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa (2008)
Men in Black 3 (2012)
Almost all people are fond of travelling. It is very interesting to see new places, another towns and countries. People may travel either for pleasure or on business. There are various means of travelling. For me there is nothing like travel by air; it is more comfortable, more convenient and, of course, far quicker than any other means. There is none of the dust and dirt of a railway or car journey, none of the trouble of changing from train to steamer and then to another train. With a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined.
From the comfortable seat of a railway carriage you have a splendid view of the whole countryside. If you are hungry, you can have a meal in the dining-car; and if a journey is a long one you can have a wonderful bed in a sleeper. Travelling by ship is also very popular now. It is very pleasant to feel the deck of the ship under the feet, to see the rise and fall of the waves, to feel the fresh sea wind blowing in the face and hear the cry of the seagulls. Many people like to travel by car. It is interesting too, because you can see many sights in a short time, you can stop when and where you like, you do not have to buy tickets or carry your suitcases. A very popular means of travelling is hiking. It is travelling on foot. Walking tours are very interesting. Hitch-hiking is a very popular method of travelling among young people. But it is not as popular in our country as abroad.
Modern life is impossible without travelling. Thousands of people travel every day either on business or for pleasure. They can travel by air, by
rail, by sea or by road. Of course, travelling by air is the fastest and the most convenient way, but it is the most expensive too. Travelling by train is slower than by plane, but it has its advantages. You can see much more interesting places of the country you are travelling through. Modern trains have very comfortable seats. There are also sleeping cars and dining cars which make even the longest journey enjoyable. Speed, comfort and safety are the main advantages of trains and planes. That is why many people prefer them to all other means.
Travelling by sea is very popular. Large ships and small river boats can visit foreign countries and differentplaces of interest within their own country. As for me, I prefer travelling by car. I think it’s very convenient. You needn’t reserve tour tickets. You needn’t carry heavy suitcases. You can stop wherever you wish, and spend at any place as much time as you like. Every year my friend and I go somewhere to the South for holidays. The Black Sea is one of the most wonderful places which attracts holiday-makers all over the world.
There are many rest-homes, sanatoriums and tourist camps there. But it is also possible to rent a room or a furnished house for a couple of weeks there. Sometimes, we can place ourselves in a tent on the sea shore enjoying fresh air and the sun all day long. As a rule, I make new friends there. In the day-time we play volleyball, tennis, swim in the warm water of the sea and sunbathe In the evening I like to sit on the beach watching the sea and enjoying the sunset. I’m fond of mountaineering. So I do a lot of climbing together with my friends. Time passes quickly and soon we have to make our way back. We return home sunburnt and full of impressions.
People on our planet can’t live without travelling now. Tourism has become a highly developed business. There are express trains, cars and jet-air liners all of that provide you with comfort and security. What choice to make? It’s up to you to decide. There is a great variety of choice available for you. Those who live in the country like going to a big city, visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like acquired holiday by the sea or in the mountains.
Most travelers carry a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them — the sights of a city, old churches, castles, mountains, lakes, waterfalls, forests, trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds. Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy times they have had. If you travel for pleasure you would like all means to enjoy picturesque areas you are passing through, you would like to see the places of interest in the cities, towns and countries.
Travelling gives us a good opportunity to see wonderful monuments, cultural and historical places, to learn a lot about the history of the country you visit, about the world around us, to meet people of different nationalities, to learn a lot about their traditions, customs, culture. In other words, you will broaden your mind. Nowadays people travel not only for pleasure but also on business. You have to go to other countries to take part in different negotiations, to sign contacts, to participate in different exhibitions, in order to push the goods produced by your firm or company о Travelling on business helps you to get more information about achievements of other companies» which will make your own business more successful.
There are a lot of means of travelling: by sea, by plane, by car, on foot. Tastes differ. That is why it is up to you to decide which means of travelling you would prefer. All means of travelling have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans. No wonder that one of the latest means of travelling is travelling by plane. It combines both comfort and speed and you will reach the place of destination very quickly. Before boarding the plane you must check in at the airport. You are required to have your baggage weighed. Each passenger is allowed 20 kilograms of baggage free of charge. But if your baggage is heavier you must pay an extra charge. Before the plane takes off the stewardess gives you all the information about the flight, the speed and altitude.
She asks you to fasten the belts and not to smoke. She will take care of you during the flight and will help you to get comfortable in your seat. Inside the cabins the air is always fresh and warm. During the flight you can take a nap or have a chat, you can read and relax. In some planes you can watch video or listen to the music. When the plane is landing or taking off you have an opportunity to enjoy the wonderful scenery and landscapes. While travelling by plane you fly past various villages and cities at the sight of which realize how majestic and tremendous our planet is. No doubt, travelling by air is the most convenient and comfortable means of travelling. But if you are airsick the flight may seem not so nice to you. Unfortunately sometimes the flights are delayed because of unfavourable weather conditions, and one more inconvenience is jet-lag. Youth problems
Youth is a beautiful time. The faces of young people, the young souls and young love – everything is beautiful. We can describe all the amazing attractions of this only period in life, which is usually remembered during all lifetime, but many youngsters say that their life is followed by numerous troubles. Really, there is no life without problems, but we can’t make little account of youth problems. Unfortunately, most of the problems are connected with family relations. Moms and dads say that teenage rebels just growing up normal. Their parents said it, just as parents say it today. “Damn kids these days”. This phrase is the fad of the adults of all times.
To my mind, each new generation of kids receives negative reviews because of two entwined social dynamics: surliness and rebellion in youth; fear and loathing by parents, whose youth has passed them by. It’s called the generation gap, which pits the impertinence of youth against the attitudes of people over 30, who forget what a pain in the butt they were as kids. If you look at history, youth has always looked bad from the adult perspective. Sometimes it’s because they don’t remember all the stupid, dangerous things they did as kids. Adults always tend to glorify their own past. It explains the reason why they often look down their noses at the next generations.
Basically, what these critical adults are saying is, “why can’t these kids be like us.” It is amazing, but every generation goes through this. I’m deeply convinced tat if some parents are ready to write off the next generation, they should remember how they behaved as young teenagers and recognize rebellion as a sign of growing up. But we should admit, there are some dangerous temptations of the youth and only parents can preserve their children from such social evil as alcohol, smoking and even early sex and killing oneself by using drugs. For example, the former Soviet Union admitted that it had over 200,000 drug addicts. Because of this the government opened several special hospitals for these addicts. There’s a big anti-drugs campaign in the country’s schools too. Usually drugs come from several places including Western Europe and Afghanistan.
Also, some addicts use glue or steal medical drugs from hospitals. This problem is closely connected with gang-violence. As well as gangs of punks, rockers and hippies, there are ultra conservative gangs, too. They want to stop “the dangerous” influence of teenage culture in our country. But actually they follow the ideas of nationalism and even fascism. One more acute problem for many young people is smoking. Millions of teenagers know it’s bad for them, but they still do it. I think it is rather easy to withstand the influence of those who smoke. We should be simply strong enough to say “no”.
Many people offer their way out. Some of them say that teenagers should not be let to the discos because of the danger of drugs; others say that young people should be given more money and more freedom, because everything that is forbidden astonishes. But in my opinion, one thing is clear: after decades of silence in the Soviet Union we face a lot of urgent problem, which should be solved as soon as it is possible. Youth Problems
Today it is fashionable to speak about teenage broblems. A few years ago alcohol, fights, murders and other kinds of violence were more problems of adults rather than young people. But now, as official reports admit, violence, AIDS, drugs and alcohol are more and more associated with youngest. For many children from poor families violence, drinking problems and all that is associated with powerty becomes more and more real. The Government surveys show that every fifth teenager who was arrested for criminal actions, was younger that 14 and couldn’t be sent to prison. Almost half of teenagers have an experience with drugs, alcohol and sex under age of 16.
A lot of teenagers who have drug or alcohol addiction almost never believe that they are dependent. These things are often combined with family and school problems. What has gone wrong? Some specialists explain that the changes of our society, the system of our life force young people to choose their own lifestyle. On the one hand, our society agrees that 15-17-years old people are old enough to be responsible for what they do and gives them quite a lot of freedom and rights. On the other hand, most adults think that teenagers are too young to be taken seriously. This misunderstaning has produced many problems. Actually, a lot of teenagers say that their parents let them do anything they want and are quite indifferent to their problems.
Many teenagers get upset or depressed when they can’t solve their problems. As a result, it makes them believe that there is only one way out – to stop living and commit suicide. No doubt, the teens’ problems will increase. And young people should feeel that they are cared about.
‘Problems of the youth’ Youth is a very important period in the life of a human being.
This is the time when a person discovers the world and tries to determine his place in the universe. Young people face a great deal of problems which are very important for them. They do not differ much from those that once their parents had to deal with. At the same time every generation is unique. The adults always say that young are not always what they were.
Yong people of today don’t directly accept the standards of their parents. They cannot accept the values of their “fathers”. It is one of the causes of the generation gap. The adults usually apply old standards to the new way of life. The majority of the young people don’t want to live in the past. They have their own ideals. They want to make their own mistakes, rather, than to listen to the warning of their parents. Almost all parents don’t understand their children. The next important problem concerns friendship. A person can and should have many friends. But at the same time there can be only one or two true friends. However, the young people always face the problem of getting on with people, especially, their class-mates. The problem of love is a key problem as well.
There are a lot of different problems, which youth have to face. Relations between Ukraine and the European Union (EU) are currently shaped via the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), a foreign policy instrument of the EU designed for the countries it borders. The EU is seeking an increasingly close relationship with Ukraine, going beyond cooperation, to gradual economic integration and deepening of political cooperation.
Ukraine is said to be a priority partner within the ENP. In 2012, the EU signed deals on free trade and political association with Ukraine; however EU leaders have stated that these agreements will not be ratified unless Ukraine addresses concerns over a “stark deterioration of democracy and the rule of law”, including the imprisonment of Yulia Tymoshenkoand Yuriy Lutsenko in 2011 and 2012.[nb 1] On 25 February 2013, the EU set a three-month deadline for Ukraine to carry out the required changes to its justice and electoral systems in order to enable the formal signing of their agreements with the EU in Vilnius on 29 November 2013.
Though Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych urged the parliament to adopt laws so that Ukraine would meet the EU’s criteria,[nb 2] all six motions on allowing Tymoshenko to receive medical treatment abroad were rejected by Ukraine’s Parliament on 21 November 2013 and the same day a Ukrainian government decree suspended preparations for signing the association agreement, endangering the formal signing scheduled for a week later. However, the same day Yanukovych stated “an alternative for European integration does not exist”.
President Yanukovych still attended the 28–29 November 2013 EU summit in Vilnius, where the Association Agreement was originally planned to be signed, but the agreement was not signed. However, on 29 November 2013 President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso reiterated that EU’s offer to Ukraine in terms of signing an Association Agreement remained on the table. The decision to put off signing the association agreement lead to massive, ongoing protests in Ukraine. Youth Organizations in Great Britain
Youth and youth movement have become important factors in the life of the country. Numerous youth organizations have been formed since the Second World War, uniting young people from all classes and sections of the population. There are about 60 youth organizations in Great Britain. Youth Council, which represents the youth of the country both nationally and internationally. All youth organizations can be divided into three large groups:
1. non-political organizations;
2. youth organizations associated with political parties;
3. youth organizations controlled by religious bodies.
The two largest non-political youth organizations are the associations of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides. There are about 1300000 boys and girls in them. The membership is voluntary. The Scout Association was formed in 1908 by General Baden Powell. His idea was to train boys in mapping, signaling, knotting, first aid and all the skills that would arise from camping and outdoor activities. Most important of all for a Scout was to make a promise that he would do his best to do his duty to. God and the Queen, to help other people and to obey the Scout Law. The Boy Scouts had a left-handed handshake, a special badge and the motto “Be Prepared”.
The Scout Law embraces “honour, obedience, cheerfulness, thrift and cleanliness in thought and deed. The Scout movement was intended for boys from 11 to 14 (15), but in 1916 Baden Powell introduced a programme for younger people. He called them Wolf Cubs. They had special uniforms, badges, a special training system and the motto “Do your best!”. The Wolf Cub pack is based on Kipling’s “Jungle Book” about learning to survive. The Girl Guides Association was founded by Baden Pawell in 1910. It’s divided into three sections: Brownies (from 7.5 to 11), Guides (from 11 to 16), Rangers (from 16 to 21). The programme of training is planned to develop intelligence and practical skills including cookery, needlework, childcare.
Like a Scout a Girl Guide must be a friend to animals. The Girl Guides Association has extensive international links. There are some other non-political organizations: the Combined Cadet Force, Sea Cadet Corps, the Woodcraft Folk, the Youth Hostels Association, the National Federation of Young Farmers Clubs, Greenpeace. Youth Organization Greenpeace deals with most urgent ecological problems. It protests against nuclear weapon tests, sea and soil pollution, etc. Sport clubs are characteristic youth organizations in the UK. They unite people who are interested in baseball, football, golf, etc.
There also exist interest clubs. You can attend any club: From theatre to bird-watching clubs. By the way, birdwatching clubs are very popular in Great Britain. There are several youth organizations associated with political parties. The Youth Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (YCND) unites young people and organizes mass rallies and meetings, demonstrations, marches of protest, festivals. It co-operates with the National Union of Students. Religious young organizations and groups aim at helping to elderly people or working in hospitals.
There are even groups where young people help released prisoners to start then life a-new. Religious organizations pay attention not only to the study of religious views but involve youth into such activities as music festivals and amateur theatre. As you see, all there organizations aim at preserving and strengthening the social and political system existing in the country. Many of them have done and still are doing useful work in providing leisure facilities for young English people.
YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN
There are numerous different youth organisations in Great Britain. Some are large and some are small, some nation-wide and some local. Probably the largest are the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides Associations, and the YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) and the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association), or simply “Y” for short. The Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides are for school-age teen-agers and the YMCA and the YWCA are for school leavers, college students, and young people who had already started working.
Boy Scouts and Girl Guides have to do one good deed every day, to develop themselves mentally and physically. In summer they go camping in tents with everything done by young people themselves. At the YMCA and the YWCA more attention is paid to sport and different social events, such as outing in the country, dances, debates, amateur activities, etc.
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