America has continued to forge forward with an ever-changing outlook

| June 14, 2018

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paper and presentation consistent with APA guidelines.Criminology in the FutureIntroductionSince the adaptation of English criminology
methods, America has continued to forge forward with an ever-changing outlook
on methods to stay at the forefront of ways to improve crime-fighting
techniques. Some methods have found
their way into the era of technology, while others are still being explored as
of a result of humanitarian necessity, and their social implications to
society. This evolution of crime
fighting has seen whistles previously used as a method to signal for help by
law enforcement replaced by the cell phone, and hand held radio. Walking the beat is still a viable source of
good police work to combat problem on the street, but the automobile equipped
with the latest technology has replaced that.
In this technology driven society law enforcement has continued to keep
up with various trending methods in their zeal to reduce crime. In their efforts to do so as they have been
faced with issue concerning the rights of the citizens with implementing there
new tools to be used on the fight against crimes. Just as the Quakers in previous years were
concerned about the rights of criminals or their treatment when they were under
the jurisdiction of law enforcement, groups have been formed to protect the
rights of citizens against the issuance of the new technology and their
implications on society. Future Direction of Crime Fighting and its
Social Policy ImplicationsThe future direction of crime fighting will
continue in the direction of technology based driven programs. Surveillance drones are one small piece of
technology being tested as a future device for fighting crime. Drones allow surveillance in areas that can
be considered dangerous, or had to reach.
They allow minimal risk or harm to law enforcement and they can cover
more ground, which decreases the amount of manpower needed for one job. Biometrics and pattern recognition will
continue to be explored as a future use for the fight against crime in areas of
terrorist, and terrorism. Biometrics is
the science of identifying individuals by distinguishing specific human
characteristics such as, eye color and handprints. Using this future technology for identifying
individuals entering into countries under false pretenses for the purpose of
doing harm can be instrumental in fighting crime.The social implications of some of the future
forms of fighting crimes will not be met with open arms. Society will continue to expect new
innovations in the fight against crime, but will not accept some of the
invasive methods that they have to incur to get protection. American Civil Liberty groups will seek to
challenge these invasive methods, and meanings behind the need for new
technology such as drones, biometrics, and other types of surveillance that may
invade the privacy of normal citizens.
Law enforcements ability to infiltrate current technological use such as
social media, cell phone records, and computer information has also met with
litigation on the grounds of being invasive.
Some or all of these technological devices are so new to the social
public, that the privacy laws have not been developed to keep in standing with
current laws that exist for the protection of privacy.The overall effort in the future of fighting
crime will be technology driven.
Criminals are also using the latest in technology to develop new
crimes. As technology, and the devices
that drive them get more sophisticated, new crimes are develop to work in
tandem with them. The overall effort of
the future in crime fighting is reduction of crime, and risk to the public,
men, and women of law enforcement.Evolution
of Crime “The
Global Futures Partnership (GFP) is a strategic “think and
do tank” that undertakes unclassified global outreach for CIA and other
Intelligence Community elements on the most important issues facing the
intelligence community today and in coming years. It conceptualizes and
implements interdisciplinary and multi-organizational projects on key
intelligence issues with leading thinkers from academia, business, strategy,
and intelligence consultants.” According the C.I.A (2011). In the old days, the best an officer could
hope for was to witness a crime or to have a witness to the crime. This made it difficult because they would often
not be able to describe a person with accuracy and a police sketch artist could
only sketch what the person remembered so this was often wrong. Now a days there is cameras, cybercrime
detectives, terrorism and counterterrorism studies, radicalization, illicit
trafficking, proliferation, foresight and warning, practice and organization of
intelligence, social networks, genocide prevention, pandemics, environment and
resource challenges, and finally failed and failing states. In the past none of
these resources or techniques were employed they have evolved as social policy
and international groups have help set the standards for modern day
policing. Civil Liberties are They Being Violated?Since September 11, 2001, the U.S. government has sought to enhance
security, necessitating a recalibration of the balance between security and
civil liberties. Many of the measures taken have proven crucial to law
enforcement’s ability to combat terrorism.However, the effort to provide law enforcement
officials with the tools they require to prevent terrorism has often come into
conflict with the need to protect Constitutional rights to privacy and
dueprocess.The problem with progressive policing is
that some people feel in order to use the tactics that their civil liberties
and Constitutional rights are being violated.
For instance, big brother watches us through cameras, our computers,
recording our telephone calls, and reading our text messages. Although this has made catching the bad guy
easier for police, what price do we as citizens have to pay? Some people feel that they are taking this
too far. Big Brother, the use of GPS to track your every move, and surveillance
drones spying on American soil. If you
don’t know your rights, you don’t have any rights. These evolving technologies have changed
national and international policymaking.Section 215 of the Patriot Act Since 911, our nation has seen a
tremendous change in policing and the government’s rights to protect us against
terrorism. Activists against the
government taking away our Constitutional Rights are in an uproar ever since
September 11, 2001. First I want to
address the changes that have occurred in policy and international policy. Section 215 of the Patriot Act allows the FBI
or government rights that they did not have before. Under section 215 the FBI can order any
person or agency to turn over tangible things as long as the FBI determines
that the order is for an authorized investigation. (The idea is to protect against international
terrorism or intelligence activities).
The FBI’s power to spy on ordinary people in the United States has reached
a Big Brother capacity now.The FBI
no longer needs probable cause, nor reasonable grounds to believe that the
person or persons or agency whose records it seeks is in fact engaged in
criminal activity. The FBI doesn’t even
have to have any suspicion that the subject of the investigation is a foreign
power or agent of a foreign power. The
FBI or government can spy on a person for whatever reason they want. Maybe they don’t like the web sites a person
goes to, or the books they read, etc.
For example, I was doing some investigations on Secret Societies and the
Illuminati for almost a year straight.
One night I was out on the front porch and saw two drones land across
the street and they were clearly doing surveillance on my home. I realize that some people might say that
this is a conspiracy theory, however, I personally saw them and the government
has already admitted to using drones to spy on the American people. I have nothing to hide, but I have to admit
that I felt my privacy had been invaded, and it was scary. Under section 215 the government is
prohibited from disclosing the fact that they are watching someone and that the
persons privacy has been compromised. We
do know that they keep track of our text messages, the web sites we visit, our
phone calls, they read our emails, and keep track of the books we read. Even in the grocery store the government can
monitor what we eat, what we buy on our credit cards, and what we pay through
our checking accounts.Is Section 215
Constitutional?Is the Patriot Act Section 215 Constitutional? Was the government
behind 911, to show just cause to implement these procedures, and take away our
rights? This is the issue that has
divided our nation for nearly 13 years.
Before 911 the government could not effect a search warrant without
showing probable cause that a person was going to commit a crime or did commit
a crime and even then it was left up to a judge to decide.The argument is that the Patriot Act
is a violation of the Forth Amendment and is more egregious by the fact that
Section 215 might be used to obtain information about the exercise of the First
Amendment rights. For example, say they
didn’t want people looking up information about a certain subject, the FBI
could invoke Section 215 to require Google to release all records of an
individual, their emails and the sites on the internet they visit. The FBI can use Section 215 to obtain medical
or employment records of an individual.
The final argument that some present is the provision violates the
Fourth and Fifth Amendments by failing to require that those who are the
subject of Section 215 orders be told that their privacy has been compromised.Does the Government
Need These Powers?The government already has the authority to prosecute anyone whom they
have probable cause to believe has committed or is planning to commit a
crime. The government has the authority
to engage in surveillance of anyone whom they believe is a foreign power or a
government spy. Now that Section 215 is
in place, the controversial issue of taking away our liberty and privacy but
isn’t likely to get us any security in return.
“This has created profound chilling effects on public attitudes, since
the government can let loose on the American public with no consequences to
them. In my opinion this is one of the
worse things the government can do Americans already a huge distrust in them
and this has created a wider division between the American people and the
United States government.” According to the Transparency Project. (2014).When looking at the future of crime investigation and prevention, one
cannot ignore the impact DNA, (Deoxyribonucleic acid) has made to solving
crimes over the last approximately 30 years.
In the late 1980’s the federal government established a DNA registry
used to track offenders, called NDIS, National DNA Index System(Schmalleger, Chapter 13, 2012).This system allowed investigators to compare DNA
to individuals who have already been arrested for a crime. In addition, it allowed investigators to put
together profiles when there was no suspect to which they could compare the
DNA. Over the years this has helped stop
murders, rapist and other violent felons as well as exonerate innocent
individuals. Currently, all fifty
states have programs that require mandatory DNA collection for certain felons.(Schmalleger, Chapter 13, 2012). The system has grown tremendously and the future
DNA is to increase the education in order to reduce human error. In addition, while it is very beneficial to
solving crimes, it is also time consuming and currently there is a large
backlog of DNA to be run. In order to
continue to implement and increase this technology there are federal programs
that are designed to help clear the backlog.
DNA testing is also progressing to incorporate all felons, both ones
that are incarcerated and ones who are not in custody such a parolees. This
advancement will help to solve many cold cases that were previously
unsolvable. Technology is improving the
way investigators solve crimes and it will only increase as time
progresses. Law enforcement has changed and
evolved over the years. What once was
impossible and improbable has become standard practices in investigating
criminal activities. For instance, the
increased use of biometrics. Biometrics
is technology that uses certain body features to identify a person. (Biometrics, 1998). This includesfingerprints,
hand geometry, signature scanning, voice scanning, facial scanning, keystroke
scanning, and iris and retinal scanning(Gibbs, 2010,
p. 16). This type of technology has the potential to bring law enforcement
to a whole new level, although all aspects are not yet fully implemented now
due to cost and insufficient studies.
Some portions however have become regular practice for law
enforcement. Finger Prints are taken
when a person is taken into custody to help monitor and track a person over the
course of their criminal history. This
technology has allowed law enforcement to track individuals who might not have
been caught at the time of a crime, but have been brought in for something
unrelated. This is especially helpful
with regards to interstate crime. For
instance if a person commits a crime in Washington and then moves and commits
another crime in Texas, in the past because fingerprints were not always taken
and not digital agencies had no way of connecting the two offenses. In addition, biometrics are now being used in
airports. When walking through the
airport they now have machines that analyze a person’s smell for evidence of
explosives or explosive making materials.
This is something that can help law enforcement keep many people safe
and save many lives. The evolution of
technology in the realm of law enforcement has helped law enforcement to evolve
with the different types or criminal attacks.
Biometrics has also helped with protecting important technology. Often, it is easy to think of the
implementation of biometrics only when it comes to taking fingerprints and
active crime scenes, but they can also help law enforcement that help to fight
security attacks via hackers. Hackers
thrive on compromising passwords, firewalls and utilizing spyware. It is not uncommon to hear of a security
breach that has come through someone getting past a firewall. But with the increasing use of biometrics, it
is making it increasing more difficult to hack secured systems. For instance, there is often the use of
fingerprints in combination with retina scans to ensure the proper person is
the only person gaining access to certain information. In 2004, “the Federal Trade Commission received 500,000
complaints about fraud and identity theft. Losses exceeded $437 million”
(Middlemiss, 2004, p. 1). This goes to
show there is a major security breach when it comes to people using the
computer to transmit personal information. Biometrics can help to cut this
number and prevent the over 4 million dollar loss of personal assets.

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